microcomputer


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microcomputer

a small computer in which the central processing unit is contained in one or more silicon chips

microcomputer

[¦mī·krō·kəm′pyüd·ər]
(computer science)
A digital computer whose central processing unit resides on a single semiconductor integrated circuit chip, a microprocessor.
An electronic device, typically consisting of a microprocessor central processing unit, semiconductor memory (RAM), graphics display, and keyboard. Typical configurations also include a hard disk for persistent memory, a compact disk drive, a disk drive which allows removable disks to be used to move data in and out of the machine, and a pointing device.

Microcomputer

A digital computer whose central processing unit consists of a microprocessor, a single semiconductor integrated circuit chip. Once less powerful than larger computers, microcomputers are now as powerful as the minicomputers and superminicomputers of just several years ago. This is due in part to the growing processing power of each successive generation of microprocessor, plus the addition of mainframe computer features to the chip, such as floating-point mathematics, computation hardware, memory management, and multiprocessing support. See Integrated circuits, Multiprocessing

Microcomputers are the driving technology behind the growth of personal computers and workstations. The capabilities of today's microprocessors in combination with reduced power consumption have created a new category of microcomputers: hand-held devices. Some of these devices are actually general-purpose microcomputers: They have a liquid-crystal-display (LCD) screen and use an operating system that runs several general-purpose applications. Many others serve a fixed purpose, such as telephones that provide a display for receiving text-based pager messages and automobile navigation systems that use satellite-positioning signals to plot the vehicle's position. See Mobile radio

The microprocessor acts as the microcomputer's central processing unit (CPU), performing all the operations necessary to execute a program (see illustration).

A memory subsystem uses semiconductor random-access memory (RAM) for the temporary storage of data or programs. The memory subsystem may also have a small secondary memory cache that improves the system's performance by storing frequently used data objects or sections of program code in special high-speed RAM.

The graphics subsystem consists of hardware that displays information on a color monitor or LCD screen: a graphics memory buffer stores the images shown on the screen, digital-to-analog convertors (DACs) generate the signals to create an image on an analog monitor, and possibly special hardware accelerates the drawing of two- or three-dimensional graphics. (Since LCD screens are digital devices, the graphics subsystem sends data to the screen directly rather than through the DACs.)

The storage subsystem uses an internal hard drive or removable media for the persistent storage of data.

The communications subsystem consists of a high-speed modem or the electronics necessary to connect the computer to a network.

Microcomputer software is the logic that makes microcomputers useful. Software consists of programs, which are sets of instructions that direct the microcomputer through a sequence of tasks. A startup program in the microcomputer's ROM initializes all of the devices, loads the operating system software, and starts it. All microcomputers use an operating system that provides basic services such as input, simple file operations, and the starting or termination of programs. While the operating system used to be one of the major distinctions between personal computers and workstations, today's personal computer operating systems also offer advanced services such as multitasking, networking, and virtual memory. All microcomputers exploit the use of bit-mapped graphics displays to support windowing operating systems. See Operating system, Software

microcomputer

A computer based on a microprocessor.

Contrast with minicomputer, mainframe.

microcomputer

Generally refers to a Windows PC or Mac, but it can refer to any kind of small computer. When the term was first introduced in the late 1970s, it meant a computer with a single microprocessor chip as its CPU, namely, the personal computer. Today, the CPU in every computer is a microprocessor, and the terms "desktop computer," "laptop computer" and "PC" have mostly replaced the word microcomputer.


The Revolution Begins!
In 1977, the same year RadioShack introduced its first microcomputer, the handwriting was on the wall... a "revolution" was beginning.
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The more sophisticated systems may also require an experienced computer specialist, even in a microcomputer environment.
The benchmark of data entry for RIS software today should be the level of user-friendliness in current commercial microcomputer products.
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"Microcomputer Procurement Guidelines" will discuss a method of determining your organization's computing and information management requirements so that you can decide which type of machine meets your needs.
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As for empirical studies relating to microcomputer use in logistics, the yearly studies conducted by Temple, Barker & Sloane and the University of Tennessee[13] have provided insight into the topics of the degree and intensity of microcomputer use, applications, software usage, and networking.
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* continued improvements in the performance of microcomputers; and
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Because the emphasis on independent learning has encouraged use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer-based question banks for self-assessment, and other audiovisual and computer-based learning tools, many academic health sciences libraries operate microcomputer learning centers.
In 1984, with the help of Mechling, Oliver and the CORES leaders, Wright wrote and introduced House Bill 1898, establishing a program called Information Technology Education for the Commonwealth (ITEC), a comprehensive program designed to enhance microcomputer education in Pennsylvania.

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