Rather than concentrate on control of the quantum system in a natural microscopic state
, NEC and JST researchers focused their efforts on control of quantum particles in a more easily handled and integrated artificial environment of a solid electron device not unlike the ones used in computers today.
The thermodynamic temperature, T, is a measure of how the energy of the system is distributed among its microscopic states. Thermodynamic analysis consists of a set of relationships between measurable macroscopic properties.
(14) When the temperature is positive, the system can sample the available microscopic energy states, and an equilibrium state includes a distribution of microscopic states. The system is constantly fluctuating in instantaneous energy, either by interaction with an external heat bath or by local fluctuations in temperature within the system.