relaxation effect of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) [O.sub.3] films with thicknesses for micro/nanopiezoelectric device," Applied Physics Letters, vol.
The sensor has better anti-interference and higher accuracy than others, can measure a range of 0 kPa to 20 kPa of microstress
, and has good linearity (Figure 5).
 Ortiz Merino J Todd R (2003) Thermal microstress
measurements in [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]/SiC nanocomposites by [Cr.sup.3+] fluorescence microscopy.
where [[bar.[xi]].sup.(k).sub.11] is microstress
caused by single principal macrostress [[sigma].sub.k], then dispersion D ([[xi].sub.11]) can be found as sum of three dependent random quantities:
where [sigma] is the macrostress (Piola-Kirchhoff stress), [eta] is the microstress
and [tau] is the interactive force.
Carbon atoms dissolved in the octahedrical positions of martensite reduce the size of domains and increase the size of structural microstress
, as demonstrated by the results of the X-ray analyses.
where [t.sub.ij] is the stress tensor, [m.sub.ij] is the couple stress tensor, [[pi].sub.i] is the microstress
vector, [sigma] is the scalar microstress
function, [epsilon] ijk is the alternating symbol and A ijrs,B ijrs,C ijrs,D ijr, [E.sub.ijr], [a.sub.ij], [b.sub.ij], [c.sub.ij], [d.sup.i], [xi] are constitutive coefficients which satisfy the symmetry relations
where the macrostress [sigma], the microstress
[eta], and the interactive force [tau] are defined as derivatives of the free energy function
Here u denotes the macrodisplacement, [psi] the microdeformation, [rho] the macrodensity, I the microinertia, [sigma] the macrostress, [eta] the microstress
, [tau] the interactive force, x space coordinate, and t time.
The frame was analyzed using Microsafe 3-D (Microstress
where [M.sub.s] is the spontaneous saturation magnetization of the domains per unit volume, A is a constant representing the contributions of inclusions and microstress
, B is a constant representing the contributions of magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and [X.sup.H] is the forced magnetization term.
Accordingly, the lattice decline was believed to result from a release of intrinsic microstress