The human midbrain, which is the information superhighway, controls auditory, eye movements, vision and body movements.
These organoids contain the necessary hallmarks of the human midbrain, which are dopaminergic neurons and neuromelanin.
Assistant Prof Shawn Je from Duke-NUS Medical School's Neuroscience & Behavioural Disorders Programme said, "It is remarkable that our midbrain organoids mimic human midbrain development.
The midbrain, a part of the non-cerebellar area that contains a variety of sensory and motor nuclei, is essential for reward learning, motivation and reinforcing behaviour.
The researchers found that compared to regular mice, those mice that had been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running had significantly greater midbrain volume as well as larger non-cerebellar brain mass, but not larger cerebella or total brain mass.
The thalamus and midbrain were quickly removed and homogenized in an extraction buffer containing 100 mM Tris, 10 mM EDTA, 2mM PMSF, and 10 #g/mL aprotinin at a pH of 7.4.
Single GFAP-positive bands were observed in thalamus and midbrain extracts of all analyzed groups.
Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in a step wise protocol into human midbrain organoids that contain neuromelanin.
Midbrain organoids, measuring about 3 mm across, cultured in the laboratory dish.
mRNA Target Primer sequence GAPDH F 5'-AGTCCAAGTGGTGGCCATCAATG-3' R 5'-TTAGCACCACCCTTCAGATGAGC-3' c-FOS F 5'-CATCTGTGAGAGCTGGTAGTCT-3' R 5'-CCAGCACCAGGTTAATTCCAATCA-3' c-JUN F 5'-TGACTGGAAAGATGGAAACG-3' R 5'-CCGTTGCTGGACTGGATTAT-3' NF-kBI F 5'-GAAGGAATCGTACCGGGAACA-3' R 5'-CTCAGAGGGCCTTGTGACAGTAA-3' Chick embryo midbrain micromass (MM) culture in vitro assay.
(F) Effects of [iAs.sup.3+] and Cd (Cd[Cl.sub.2]) on cell viability of midbrain MM cultures 5 days after exposure; positive and negative controls for cytotoxicity were 5-Fu and PenG, respectively.