kitchen midden

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kitchen midden,

refuse heap left by a prehistoric settlement; more specifically, a deposit consisting primarily of discarded shell and related cultural material in coastal environments. First studied (1848) in Denmark, middens are an important source of ecological and cultural information. Kitchen middens, generally known as shell mounds in the Americas, usually date from the late Mesolithic periodMesolithic period
or Middle Stone Age,
period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this
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. Their contents include artifacts that can be dated, suggesting the mode of life and technology of ancient peoples. Analysis of animal remains can indicate the climate, season, length of occupation, hunting patterns, and the possible presence of domestication. Such middens generally represent only one component of a complex foraging strategy of migratory hunter-gatherers.

Kitchen Midden


(also shell mound, shell heap), an accumulation of shells of edible mollusks and other food remains at certain habitation sites of the Neolithic period (about the fifth to third millennia B.C.). They are generally found on seacoasts and riverbanks. The best studied are those in Denmark, where they measure as much as 100 to 300 m long and 1 to 3 m high. Small kitchen middens have been found in the USSR in the vicinity of the Dnieper River.

References in periodicals archive ?
saying they want to go into this career," Midden said.
A total 41 skeletons from three shell middens identified as A, B and C in Guar Kepah were excavated by British archaeologists between 1851 and 1934 and those skeletons are now in the National Natuurhistorisch Museum in Leiden, Holland.
He said the shell midden and burial jars made the site important in developing a cultural chronology for Bicol.
The Feature 2 midden and house assemblages were broadly similar, though not identical.
They bring home abundant cowpats, rabbit pellets and other animals' dung, often leaving it just outside the midden. Inside middens Skopec has found an old underwear band, a silvery ring, shotgun shells, a coyote paw, Doritos bags and much more.
The goalscorers who helped Midden Vets into double figures were Aitcheson (3), Yhip (3), Lee (2), Jones, Atherton and Sherwood.
Our regression analysis of the midden data indicated that, when coupled with a flow variable to account for shells being washed away during periods of high river discharge (Watters, 1995), seasonal vegetation availability was a strong predictor of shell deposition at middens.
Retrospectively, we did not find it surprising that black bears consumed seeds (southwestern white pine) in cones excavated from middens made by red squirrels at the sites.
In 2007, the NHC engaged Wilson to undertake archaeological investigations on shell midden sites in the Lower Murray following cultural heritage surveys conducted by Australian Cultural Heritage Management (ACHM) during the Lower Murray Reclaimed Irrigation Area (LMRIA) Project.
"It could also tell us a bit about what happened here that brought the use of the midden to an end.
Ryan Midden, the store's general manager, told the Boston Globe on Friday that customers seemed overwhemingly excited about the limited-edition flavour despite the misstep.
The average total biomass that was contributed to the forest floor in February was 6.3 kg/ha (s = 5.3 kg/ha) in midden plots and 5.5 kg/ha (s = 7.2 kg/ha) in control plots, and in April was 60.7 kg/ha (s = 44.3 kg/ha) in middens and 46.1 kg/ha (s = 41.7 kg/ha) in controls.