middle voice


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middle voice

The so-called middle voice is an approximate type of grammatical voice in which the subject both performs and receives the action expressed by the verb. In other words, the subject acts as both the agent and the receiver (i.e., the direct object) of the action.
Middle-voice verbs follow the same syntactic structure as in the active voice (agent + verb), but function semantically as passive-voice verbs. As a result, the middle voice is described as a combination of the active and passive voices.
Because there is no verb form exclusive to the middle voice, it is often categorized as the active voice since it uses the same verb structure in a sentence.
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middle voice,

in grammar: see voicevoice,
grammatical category according to which an action is referred to as done by the subject (active, e.g., men shoot bears) or to the subject (passive, e.g., bears are shot by men). In Latin, voice is a category of inflection like mood or tense.
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References in periodicals archive ?
De Schepps views the conception of the transitory middle voice as an oversimplification of a much more complex theoretical problem.
One means for discovering this is to have the student phonate on a middle voice pitch on a /z/, /n/, or a raspberry with the hands placed lightly on the cheeks.
The opposition with the active is clear in those middle voice verbs that also allow an active voice: koimatai, 'he sleeps', in which the subject is internal to the process, then becomes koima, 'he puts (someone or something) to sleep, makes one sleep', in which the process, no longer having its place in the subject, comes to be transferred transitively to another term that becomes the object.
What he deduces from Barthes is that the middle voice can be construed as speaking "a word of caution about constructions that we often run across in literary criticism in South Africa" (95), and he lists several examples, each of which reflects a prevailing instrumentalism: "to use language/to write a book/to create characters/to express thought/to communicate a message.
One concerns the identification of imma- as a middle voice marker, discussed in chapter four.
The middle voice is like the passive in that what would ordinarily be the object of a transitive verb becomes the subject of the sentence, but it is also different in that the voice distinction is not morphologically distinguished:
In its twofold translation as both the passive "hated" or active "hater," it represents a middle voice form that possesses the capacity to absorb the meaning of both constructions (129-30).
The proposal of the middle voice elicits a strong negative reaction from David, so the scribe demonstrates an approximation of the middle voice with a parable:
In this article we approach the phenomenon of the English middle voice from a functional-cognitive perspective.
Akin to the reflexive, the middle voice always suggests that the agent is interior to the process in question, naming a subject who acts through, upon, or for the self.
LaCapra believes that acting out, which enacts a repetitive resistance to working through trauma, also can be tied to the idea of the discursive equivalent of an extinct rhetorical mode called the middle voice, a model suggested by Hayden White as a form of discourse that might be useful or at least less inadequate than either testimony or interpretation in representing catastrophic events.
But the middle voice of the participle "showed" (epideikynymenai) indicates that the widows were actually wearing the clothes made for them by Dorcas.