De Schepps views the conception of the transitory middle voice
as an oversimplification of a much more complex theoretical problem.
One means for discovering this is to have the student phonate on a middle voice
pitch on a /z/, /n/, or a raspberry with the hands placed lightly on the cheeks.
The opposition with the active is clear in those middle voice
verbs that also allow an active voice: koimatai, 'he sleeps', in which the subject is internal to the process, then becomes koima, 'he puts (someone or something) to sleep, makes one sleep', in which the process, no longer having its place in the subject, comes to be transferred transitively to another term that becomes the object.
What he deduces from Barthes is that the middle voice
can be construed as speaking "a word of caution about constructions that we often run across in literary criticism in South Africa" (95), and he lists several examples, each of which reflects a prevailing instrumentalism: "to use language/to write a book/to create characters/to express thought/to communicate a message.
One concerns the identification of imma- as a middle voice
marker, discussed in chapter four.
The middle voice
is like the passive in that what would ordinarily be the object of a transitive verb becomes the subject of the sentence, but it is also different in that the voice distinction is not morphologically distinguished:
In its twofold translation as both the passive "hated" or active "hater," it represents a middle voice
form that possesses the capacity to absorb the meaning of both constructions (129-30).
The proposal of the middle voice
elicits a strong negative reaction from David, so the scribe demonstrates an approximation of the middle voice
with a parable:
In this article we approach the phenomenon of the English middle voice
from a functional-cognitive perspective.
Akin to the reflexive, the middle voice
always suggests that the agent is interior to the process in question, naming a subject who acts through, upon, or for the self.
LaCapra believes that acting out, which enacts a repetitive resistance to working through trauma, also can be tied to the idea of the discursive equivalent of an extinct rhetorical mode called the middle voice
, a model suggested by Hayden White as a form of discourse that might be useful or at least less inadequate than either testimony or interpretation in representing catastrophic events.
But the middle voice
of the participle "showed" (epideikynymenai) indicates that the widows were actually wearing the clothes made for them by Dorcas.