De Schepps views the conception of the transitory middle voice
as an oversimplification of a much more complex theoretical problem.
The opposition with the active is clear in those middle voice
verbs that also allow an active voice: koimatai, 'he sleeps', in which the subject is internal to the process, then becomes koima, 'he puts (someone or something) to sleep, makes one sleep', in which the process, no longer having its place in the subject, comes to be transferred transitively to another term that becomes the object.
Rebecca Folsom, on strengthening the core of my middle voice
, which is where the role sits vocally for the most part.
It was all there: the glorious middle voice
, the ample lower range, and the amazing top, at once pure and seductive.
A brief but effective theoretical intervention and circumvention of this instrumentalism was his excursus on the semantics of the middle voice
, in a meditation on Roland Barthes's essay, "To Write: An Intransitive Verb?" The middle voice
is positioned midway between active and passive voices.
The theoretical framework Woods develops to define the function of these voices draws extensively from Hopper and Thompson's work on scalar transitivity as well as from Suzanne Kemmer's work on the middle voice
. According to these theories, which are summarized in chapter two, voice is governed by the transitivity of the clause, when transitivity is understood as a graded continuum of high to low transitive events.
Hardy sets his use of voice against the background of narratology and Bakhtinian dialogism, but he is more interested in grammatical voice and, more specifically, middle voice
. In the middle voice
, the subject of the sentence has elements of the active and the passive.
The narrator proposes using the "middle voice
" for Dulcie's story (197), and in fact does use it with increasing frequency in the novel's closing chapters.
In this article we approach the phenomenon of the English middle voice
from a functional-cognitive perspective.
The distinct features of the environment-poem--simultaneity, reciprocity and interaction--are achieved in part by approximating the lost grammatical technique of the middle voice
, intermingling object and subject, active and passive verbs.