middle voice


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middle voice

The so-called middle voice is an approximate type of grammatical voice in which the subject both performs and receives the action expressed by the verb. In other words, the subject acts as both the agent and the receiver (i.e., the direct object) of the action.
Middle-voice verbs follow the same syntactic structure as in the active voice (agent + verb), but function semantically as passive-voice verbs. As a result, the middle voice is described as a combination of the active and passive voices.
Because there is no verb form exclusive to the middle voice, it is often categorized as the active voice since it uses the same verb structure in a sentence.
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middle voice,

in grammar: see voicevoice,
grammatical category according to which an action is referred to as done by the subject (active, e.g., men shoot bears) or to the subject (passive, e.g., bears are shot by men). In Latin, voice is a category of inflection like mood or tense.
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References in periodicals archive ?
De Schepps views the conception of the transitory middle voice as an oversimplification of a much more complex theoretical problem.
The opposition with the active is clear in those middle voice verbs that also allow an active voice: koimatai, 'he sleeps', in which the subject is internal to the process, then becomes koima, 'he puts (someone or something) to sleep, makes one sleep', in which the process, no longer having its place in the subject, comes to be transferred transitively to another term that becomes the object.
Rebecca Folsom, on strengthening the core of my middle voice, which is where the role sits vocally for the most part.
It was all there: the glorious middle voice, the ample lower range, and the amazing top, at once pure and seductive.
A brief but effective theoretical intervention and circumvention of this instrumentalism was his excursus on the semantics of the middle voice, in a meditation on Roland Barthes's essay, "To Write: An Intransitive Verb?" The middle voice is positioned midway between active and passive voices.
The middle construction covers a wide array of constructions, traditionally referred to as the middle voice:
The theoretical framework Woods develops to define the function of these voices draws extensively from Hopper and Thompson's work on scalar transitivity as well as from Suzanne Kemmer's work on the middle voice. According to these theories, which are summarized in chapter two, voice is governed by the transitivity of the clause, when transitivity is understood as a graded continuum of high to low transitive events.
Hardy sets his use of voice against the background of narratology and Bakhtinian dialogism, but he is more interested in grammatical voice and, more specifically, middle voice. In the middle voice, the subject of the sentence has elements of the active and the passive.
In its twofold translation as both the passive "hated" or active "hater," it represents a middle voice form that possesses the capacity to absorb the meaning of both constructions (129-30).
The narrator proposes using the "middle voice" for Dulcie's story (197), and in fact does use it with increasing frequency in the novel's closing chapters.
In this article we approach the phenomenon of the English middle voice from a functional-cognitive perspective.
The distinct features of the environment-poem--simultaneity, reciprocity and interaction--are achieved in part by approximating the lost grammatical technique of the middle voice, intermingling object and subject, active and passive verbs.