migraine

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migraine

(mī`grān), headache characterized by recurrent attacks of severe pain, usually on one side of the head. It may be preceded by flashes or spots before the eyes or a ringing in the ears, and accompanied by double vision, nausea, vomiting, or dizziness. The attacks vary in frequency from daily occurrences to one every few years.

Migraine affects women three times as often as men and is frequently inherited. Many disturbances, such as allergy, temporary swelling of the brain, and endocrine disturbances, have been suspected of causing some varieties of the disorder. Although the exact cause is unknown, evidence suggests a genetically transmitted functional disturbance of cranial circulation. The pain is believed to be associated with constriction followed by dilation of blood vessels leading to and within the brain.

Untreated attacks may last for many hours. Mild attacks are often relieved by common sedatives such as aspirin or codeine. Severe attacks may be treated with any of a variety of drugs, including a group called triptans, by injection or in the form of pills or nasal sprays. Certain beta-blockers, antiepileptic drugs, or tricyclic antidepressants may reduce the recurrence of migraines in some patients. Biofeedback is used in training people to recognize the warning symptoms and to practice control over the vascular dilation that initiates attacks.

Migraine

 

(also hemicrania), a condition characterized by periodic headaches, usually localized in one half of the head. Women are most often affected by migraines, and in the majority of cases there is a hereditary tendency. The condition usually begins to manifest itself during puberty.

Migraines originate with changes in the tonus of intracranial and extracranial vessels. It is conjectured that first there is a spasm in the vessels and then a decrease in their tonus. As a result, the vessels dilatate abnormally. The headache attacks are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Other symptoms include pallor or flushing, chilled hands and feet, weakness, shivering, and yawning. Patients usually complain of seeing bright flashes and zigzag lines; sometimes there is reduction or dimness of vision (ophthalmic migraine). Other symptoms are numbness of or tingling sensations in the extremities and, sometimes, the face and tongue. The symptomatic migraine is an indication of organic brain disease—for example, tumor, or vascular aneurysm.

Treatment entails normalization of vascular tonus, sedatives, and physical therapy.

WORKS

Davidenkov, S. N., and A. M. Godinova. “K voprosu o nozologicheskikh granitsakh migrenei.” In Ocherki klinicheskoi nevrologii, fasc. 2. [Leningrad] 1964. [Collection of works.]

V. A. KARLOV

migraine

[′mī‚grān]
(medicine)
Recurrent paroxysmal vascular headache, commonly having unilateral onset and often associated with nausea and vomiting.

migraine

a throbbing headache usually affecting only one side of the head and commonly accompanied by nausea and visual disturbances
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uAS in migraine patients and migrainous features in CH are summarized in Table 3.
Demarin, "Prevalence of vertigo, dizziness, and migrainous vertigo in patients with migraine," Headache, vol.
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Migrainous vertigo is an increasingly recognised cause of vertigo.
Kempner criticizes online activists for a tendency to "extend the neurobiological paradigm beyond what biomedical evidence currently supports." For example, they emphasize that migraine is a "brain disease," offering alarmist interpretations of white lesions or infarcts on scans as evidence of "brain damage." In arguing for the seriousness of migraine as a disease, many emphasize that it can be fatal, in the case of migrainous stroke.
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He presented a prospective, observational, proof-of-concept study involving 18 adults who presented to an emergency department with a primary headache--that is, either migraine, migrainous headache not meeting full diagnostic criteria for migraine, or tension headache.
This goal is approached by: (1) identifying the organization of central vestibular circuits that mediate autonomic and somatic motor responses to vestibular stimulation; (2) identifying neurotransmitters and intracellular signal transduction proteins that are important in these brain circuits; (3) examining the role of these biochemical constituents in responses to challenges from toxins and mechanical (blast) injury; and (4) identifying contributions of these mechanisms to the clinical linkage among balance disorders, anxiety disorders (panic with agoraphobia) and migrainous vertigo.
Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of atypical TN glossopharyngeal and vagus neuralgias, post-herpetic neuralgia, tension type and migrainous type headaches, psychogenic facial pain including oral dysaesthesia, glossodynia, atypical facial pain, atypical odontalgia and temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome were excluded from study.
(26) Cortical injury causes additional sensory deficits, including colour agnosia (the inability to remember colour names), coloured hallucinations (phosphenes), photopsia, migrainous 'fortification spectra' or episodes of chromatopsia in which the environment appears suffused in a single colour.