and van der Marel, H.W.: 1968, A regular talc-saponite mixed-layer mineral from Ferriere, Nure Valley (Piacenza Province, Italy).
and Drits, V.A.: 2000, Phase analysis of clays using an expert system and calculation programs for X-ray diffraction by two- and three-component mixed-layer minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 57-62.
Velde, "Solid solutions in I/S mixed-layer minerals
and illite," American Mineralogist, vol.
Because the clay fractions in soils are complex mixtures of different clay mineral phases, including mixed-layer minerals
, their characterisation is generally a difficult task.
* Note: K-Kaolinite, C-Chlorite, I-Illite, S-Smectite, I/S-illite smectite mixed layer, %S-the content of smectite in mixed-layer minerals
of illite and smectite.
Zagros geological rocks and concluded that kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, palygorskite and illite-smectite mixed-layer minerals
were present in the rocks studied.
Exchangeable Al increased with increasing amounts of kaolin minerals (significant at P = 0.01) and illite and vermiculite/illite mixed-layer minerals
(both significant at P = 0.05), while no correlation could be established with vermiculite and 2: 1-2: 1:1 intergrades.
The ratio of illite/smectite in mixed-layer minerals
Smectites as weathering products generally have heterogeneous charge distributions, similar to those found in mixed-layer minerals
. Vermiculites represent initial stages in the alteration sequence of micas and their charge heterogeneity should correspond to the fundamental processes of weathering (Lagaly, 1982).
The minerals identified in the clay fractions of all profiles are as follows: (i) chlorite, (ii) illite or interlayer-cation-deficient mica (Rieder et al., 1998), (iii) smectite and / or mixed-layer smectitic minerals with a high [greater than or equal to] 50 % amount of expandable layers, (iv) mixed-layer minerals
with a small amount of expandable layers, (v) kaolinite, and (vi) quartz.
The same applies to the mixed-layer minerals
Il-Ve and Ch-Ve occurring in the studied soils.
Crystallochemistry of Mixed-Layer Minerals
. Composition of the Most Common Mixed-Layer Minerals
3 Energy Balances: Thermodynamics--Kinetics Thermodynamics of Equilibrium Introduction.