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Inflammation of the periodontium.



an acute or chronic inflammation of the periodontium and adjacent tissues. Periodontitis is usually a result of dental caries and arises as infection spreads from the root canal through the apical foramen to the apex of the root. It may also develop from frequently recurring injury to the tooth; this kind of injury can result from such occupational habits as biting thread or grasping metal nails with the teeth and from any habitual biting of hard objects, for example, pencils or the mouthpieces of pipes.

Acute periodontitis is manifested by sharp pain in the region of the tooth that intensifies when the inflamed area is touched. Swelling often occurs in the gums, lips, or cheeks, and the affected tooth becomes loose. The enlarged submaxillary lymph nodes become sensitive, and fever occasionally arises. The process may sometimes be complicated by osteomyelitis of the jaw, purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the face and neck, and acute sepsis. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis usually include discomfort while chewing, halitosis, and sometimes fistulas on the gums and facial skin. Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of a cyst of the jaw, and both forms of periodontitis can sensitize the body to streptococci.

Treatment of periodontitis is usually conservative, consisting of filling the root canals. Often the tooth is removed. Abscesses are lanced, and antibiotics are used to treat pronounced general symptoms.


Groshikov, M. I. Periodontit. Moscow, 1964.
Marchenko, A. I. “Bolezni periodonta.” In Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1967.
Ovrutskii, G. D., F. G. Gasimov, and S. V. Makarov. Bolezni zubov. Kazan, 1967.
Rybakov, A. I., and V. S. Ivanov. Klinika terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
The concentration of IL-6 among NDM and T2DM is presented in Table 5 and Figures 2(e) and 2(f), which showed that the concentration of IL-6 in the group with moderate periodontitis was significantly higher than in the group with severe periodontitis among T2DM subjects.
Conversely, in NDM groups, we found that the expression level of BPIFA1 was significantly higher in nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis subjects compared with those in the moderate periodontitis group.
Moderate periodontitis was found to be more prevalent in population under investigation; 41.3% reported moderate amount of clinical attachment loss.
No periodontal destruction was seen for all categories of periodontitis under good glycaemic control which increased to 81.8% (for slight periodontitis); 92.3% (for moderate periodontitis) and 0% (for severe periodontitis) under poor glycaemic control; suggesting a direct relationship of CAL with glycaemic status.
The prevalence of moderate periodontitis increased with age; the risk of being affected by periodontitis was 2.3 times for persons above 35 years of age than below.
Mean pocket depth for all subgroups was around 4, showed that all subgroups had moderate periodontitis but when that added to mean gingival recession (around 2) the whole attachment loss becomes on average about 7mm so the case become severe periodontitis.
Plaque Index Gingival Index [Mean [+ or -] SD [Mean [+ or -] SD (range)] (range)] Mild Periodontitis 0.40 [+ or -] 1.16 0.69 [+ or -] 0.18 (0.04-0.76) (0.00-1.00) Moderate Periodontitis 0.51 [+ or -] 0.30 0.71 [+ or -] 1.16 (0.00-1.00) (0.00-1.00) Severe Periodontitis 0.49 [+ or -] 0.36 0.73 [+ or -] 0.15 (0.00-1.00) (0.00-1.00) SD = Standard Deviation.
Tooth loss in patients with moderate periodontitis after treatment and long-term maintenance care.
* Case Type III Moderate Periodontitis or Case Type IV Advanced Periodontitis 24 and supragingival calculus on the line angles or covering some of the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth and maxillary buccal surfaces of the fist molars with subgingival calculus spicules or ledges
In order to qualify for participation, healthy subjects had to have moderate periodontitis defined as having at least 1 pocket in each quadrant with [greater than or equal to] 4 mm of bone loss.

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