One can easily see a symmetry that is being presented in the book among three forms of modernities
(which succeeded each other in the West but seem to co-exist and compete in all societies to varying degrees), and three corresponding forms of institutions and organizations.
These travel narratives of Latin American and Spanish authors show their reactions and interpretations of the capitalist and technological modernities
they encounter in Spain, Portugal, France and Italy.
In their book-length treatment of the concept of modernities
, Kajsa Ekholm Friedman and Jonathan Friedman (2008:5) highlight the same problems with the analytical concept of modernity that Mimica discusses.
The meaning framework is crucial for Stark as he anchors his argument for the presence of alternative modernities
as being built upon meaning production.
It is possible to envisage alternative paths to modernity as well as alternative modernities
which have been proposed by several scholars around the world.
The problem of modernity and its aesthetic movements has been its local derivation, its ownership, and its persistent lack of acknowledgement of other, more unrecognizable modernities
and modern aesthetic movements.
In Sciences from Below: Feminisms, Postcolonialities, and Modernities
, Sandra Harding attempts to bring together the study of modernity with feminist and postcolonial thought.
: Sexuality, Women and National Culture.
As if to emphasize this problematic and often contradictory association of modernism with the institutional forms of modern society, the underlying category of modernity has itself now been pluralized and cast in a global frame so as to emphasize an unevenness of development which has produced (to use Dilip Gaonkar's influential phrase) 'alternative modernities
' (quoted p.
: China, Vietnam, Korea, and the Hazards of World History, by Alexander Woodside.
Here there has been keen recognition not only of the divergent articulations of modernity and contending intimations of the modern, but also of the competing place within all modernities
of exclusive images of Western modernity, where the singularity and universalism of the latter are differently engaged by the measures and horizons of the former --these distinct procedures shaping and suturing empire, nation, and globalization.
: NEGOTIATING ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM