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Towards the beginning of that period, it was the scholars of Al-Azhar who led the campaign to expel the wave of infidel invaders, however it wasn't long before they came to appreciate what those invaders brought in the way of modernity. The selection of Muhammad Ali as governor of Egypt came as a result of their appreciation for European modernity, despite the fact that it came in the form of invasion.
Despite the cultural specificity of colonial modernity, for Jacob, this conceptualization of the modern as "universal" found its expression in the creation of a new national subject and the modern Egyptian self.
Together with institutions which offered secular education, new print media help to lay the foundation for mass consumption and new discourses about modernity. Chapter 2 looks at the modest participation of women in modern education and the appearance of 'the modern women' in public discourse.
In light of these problems with Tillich's thought, the author advances his own critique of capitalism that highlights the worldwide economic and ecological consequences of capitalism and argues that capitalism is the "civil religion of global modernity" (11).
Centering on a metaphor in which disparate elements are woven together in the present, Benjamin suggests what he refers to elsewhere as "materialist history." Angeliki Spiropoulou's book, Virginia Woolf, Modernity and History: Constellations with Walter Benjamin, ties Benjamin's materialist history to Virginia Woolf's sense of a plural history, a "web of obscure lives interlocking with each other instead of a succession of great events and a procession of great men" (124).
Ah, modernity. It must be one of the most vexed theoretical questions of the most recent generation of postcolonial scholarship.
Contemporaneously, the Islamic and Muslim encounter with modernity is taking place in Western countries (from Australia, to France, to the USA) within the Muslim diaspora, alongside the emergence of native African American and European Muslim communities and the growth of second and third generation European and American Muslims, who are struggling to form their Muslim identities in the Western milieu.
In Part 1, Harding highlights the work of three theorists of modernity: French ethnographer and philosopher of science Bruno Latour, German sociologist and advocate of "risk society" Ulrich Beck, and a team of European sociologists of science headed by Helga Nowotny, Peter Scott, and Michael Gibbons.
Nevertheless, in light of the notorious, anti-human weeds that have sprouted solely in the soil of secular modernity, it feels obligatory for both the religious and humanist thinker to be against it--whatever its ontological status.
Dissemination and transformation being major, underlying and primal themes of early colonial Urdu literature which have not ceased to influence our thinking patterns regarding modernity even in the 21st century cannot be fully grasped without considering some inevitable additives.
I also argue that although the empirical methodology is far from perfect, the State Economic Modernity Index meaningfully helps generate a list of three countries--Israel, Hungary, and China--whose characteristics have set them apart among socialist countries in a positive way, at least to some degree.
In no time, "anti-modern modernity" per se became the manifesto of the Chinese New Left, serving as an essential ingredient in their view of modern (literary) history.