mofette


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mofette

[mō′fet]
(geology)
A small opening emitting carbon dioxide in an area of late-stage volcanic activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
Photosynthetic performance (CO2-compensation point, carboxylation efficiency, and net photosynthesis) of timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) is effected by elevated carbon dioxide in post- volcanic mofette areas.
On rare occasions in nature, emissions of geogenic CO2 from mofettes generate plant communities in sites with locally increased [CO2] in the soil and air.
l.) in NE Slovenia (Central Europe), within the area of Radenci Spa, which is famous for its springs of mineral water containing dissolved CO2 and for the occurrence of CO2 mofettes. The CO2, compressed in Miocene and Pliocene porous sediments under a pressure of 100 to 110 bars, results from post-volcanic activity (Titek, 1999).
The mofettes often release CO2 in fluctuating bursts and in similar locations in Slovenia, soil [CO2] has varied by as much as almost 30% (Vodnik et al., 2006; 2009).
The spa tourism valorize the natural resources with balneary potential (mineral, mineral-thermal water, mofettes, mud therapy, salt mines, aerosols), under a special arrangement of space (infrastructure and appropriate types of treatment facilities) and the presence of qualified medical personnel.
The Romanian spa resorts, spreading over all forms of relief, were established in order to exploit the spa valences of natural resources, especially hydro and thermal, all types of mineral waters, mofettes, organic and inorganic sludge, as well as the climate specific of the seaside (thalassotherapy, heliotherapy, mud therapy), of the mountains and hilly areas (shelter climate), or of the microclimate of salt mines and caves etc.
Soils on mofette fields are natural laboratories to study the effects of enhanced C[O.sub.2] concentrations in the soil atmosphere on the dynamics of SOM, together with weathering and formation of secondary minerals.
This study was based on the hypotheses that (i) the extent of weathering and neo-formation of minerals, together with the specification of cation exchange and availability of the selected nutrients (all of which may affect stabilisation of SOM) is controlled by geogenic C[O.sub.2] on mofette sites, and (ii) p(C[O.sub.2]) affects not only the distribution of SOC among particle-size and density fractions of SOM (Rennert and Pfanz 2015), but also the qualitative SOM composition of the fractions, which was investigated by infrared spectroscopy in this study.
The transect under study has the steepest gradient of C[O.sub.2] partial pressures from the topsoil to the subsoil at the mofette site (50[degrees]8'50"N, 12[degrees]27'5"E) that covers -400 [m.sup.2] (Sassmannshausen 2010).
(2011), who worked on a mofette site ~2km downstream in the Plesna valley, quartz, muscovite, feldspars and clay minerals were detected in the soil samples (Fig.
(2008) reported a decrease in the total contents of Mg and Mn from the margin to the centre of a mofette. For Mg, Mn and Ti, these results may be explained by intensified weathering and leaching of these elements.
This study on soil from a moderate mofette site, where the soil atmosphere is not entirely composed of geogenic C[O.sub.2] shows an effect of C[O.sub.2] on the specification of some inorganic soil properties.