Barros, "Multifrequency soil moisture inversion
from SAR measurements with the use of IEM," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.
5b) was also very good, as illustrated by the fit of the WVSS data between the bounding raobs across much of the strong low-level moisture inversion in this summer case (see Fig.
In both cases, the majority of both ascent (solid) and descent (dashed) profiles showed good agreement with raobs taken immediately prior to and following the aircraft reports, including strong gradients across moisture inversions. This was especially true in the lowest 300 hPa of the soundings where all aircraft were flying essentially along the same paths and close to the raob launch site.
The basic theory of the soil moisture inversion
method is that, on bare surfaces, the dielectric constant is highly dependent on soil moisture due to the large difference in the dielectric constant between dry soil (approximately 2-3) and water (approximately 81).
The first step in the research study consisted of the preparation of a SHUM profile and the identification of cases of moisture inversion. The depth and strength of moisture inversions were determined using a formula provided by Brunke et al.
Many studies on the vertical structure of water vapor content focus on the key relevance of moisture inversions and their impact on selected processes related to water circulation and energy exchange.
 compared data from five reanalysis attempts and were able to show that moisture inversions can also occur outside Arctic and Antarctic areas, although much less frequently and with less intensity.
Inversion layers separated by a negative SHUM gradient were treated as separate moisture inversions. The study only considers cases where [DELTA]q >0.009 g x [kg.sup.-1] (10% positive lapse rate).
Moisture inversions may assume variable depths and degrees of strength in relation to location and season of the year.
 found statistically significant relationships between the occurrence of moisture inversions in relation to temperature inversions in near-polar areas in the northern and southern hemispheres.
As shown in Table 1, soil moisture inversion
error for row structure rough surface assumption is slightly greater than flat rough surface assumption, and the difference between them is approximately 0.005 [cm.sup.3]/[cm.sup.3] when soil is dry.
The role of advection and formation of temperature and moisture inversions
on longwave radiative forcing is even more pronounced indirectly via their relation to cloud formation.