in porous materials under temperature gradients.
However, most of the concrete structures exposed to the tidal environment are in nonsaturated state, and the chloride transport is driven by both diffusion via concentration gradient through continuous pore water channel and convection via moisture movement
through nonsaturated pores.
Furthermore, thermodynamic properties aid the understanding of moisture movement
that occur within the product during a post-harvest operation such as drying.
Many mathematical models are developed for the analysis of such processes example mathematical models of moisture movement
in wood, when the wood is considered as porous media ,  and .
Without considering the action of gravity or the deformation of soil mass, the differential equation and boundary conditions for moisture movement
in the horizontal 1D seepage test without free head are shown as follows:
Therefore, the temperature to produce water vapour is rapidly reached, and the increasing wood permeability are the dominate factors of the controlling moisture movement
(Siau 1984, Perre 2007).
Moreover, there may be resistance to moisture movement
caused by surface shrinkage, which significantly reduces the drying speed (MEISAMIASL et al., 2010).
Experiments on non-isothermal moisture movement
A mathematical model for predicting coupled heat and moisture movement
in unsaturated soil, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 2(1): 19-34.
The solution of Fickian diffusion equation (7) in such conditions for an infinite slab, assuming unidimensional moisture movement
volume change, constant temperature, and diffusivity coefficients, and negligible external resistance  can be as follows:
The presence of this coating and the well-known hydrophobicity of palm or groundnut oil all acted to reduce the moisture movement
The moisture movement
and heat transfer are highly coupled within the building materials and have an important effect on the overall energy performance of buildings (Kalagasidis 2004; Kunzel et al.