The force and moment coefficient
equations can be seen in Equations 2-4, along with the equation for a cycle averaged drag calculation ([C.sub.DWC]) proposed by Howell et al.
Caption: Figure 10: Pitching moment coefficient
versus AoA for the final UAV design (Re = 237 000).
where l is the reference length; [C.sub.l[delta]x] is the rolling moment coefficient
due to the canted angle of tails, which is denoted as [[delta].sub.x]; [C.sub.lp] is the rolling damping moment coefficient
; [C.sub.m[alpha]] is the static moment coefficient
; [C.sub.mq] is the damping moment coefficient
; [C.sub.mp[alpha]] is the Magnus moment coefficient
; and [C.sub.m[delta]] is the control moment coefficient
The aerodynamic forces are computed using the static lift, drag, and moment coefficient
correlations for the studied debris shape, neglecting the shape effects on the flow field.
As part of regression analysis, Pearson's product moment coefficient
of correlation was done.
The Pearson Product Moment Coefficient
of Correlation was computed to find the correlation between two administrations.
Table 1: Characteristic design Parameters Chord 0.4167 ft Lift Curve Slope 4.712 /rad Min Lift Coefficient -1.1 Max Lift Coefficient 1.1 Drag Coefficient Gain 0.9 Drag Coefficient Offset 0.9 Duct Moment Coefficient
0.8 Table 2: Mesh details Mesh type Hybrid mesh (tetra/prism) Global element size 0.04 Prism mesh 0.004 Prism mesh layers around duct 6 Total mesh elements 5,48,446 Mesh nodes 95,317 Table 3: Result Analysis L/D ratio for duct 3.686 L/uD ratio for ducted propeller 3.862
where [F.sub.D], [F.sub.L], and [M.sub.Z] are the drag force, the lift force, and the torsional moment, respectively; [C.sub.D], [C.sub.L], and [C.sub.M] are the drag coefficient, the lift coefficient, and the moment coefficient
, respectively; Lis the models' reference length (L - 1400 mm); d is the diameter of naked conductor; V is wind velocity (V - 20 m/s); and p is the air density.
where R, L, I are resistance, inductance and current of DC motor rotor circuits, accordingly; [k.sub.[omega]] is a counter-EMF coefficient; [k.sub.u] is an amplifier coefficients; [k.sub.m] is a moment coefficient
; J is a moment of inertia of DC motor shaft and rotating parts of reducers; c is rigidity of mechanical transmission; [x.sub.1] is a turn angle of link; i is a reducing ratio of the reducer; h, H, [M.sub.E] are the variable components of torque influences on actuators, including the interactions between all the degrees of freedom of the manipulator; u is a input voltage of amplifiers.
In addition, one can see from Fig.14 that at the position 4, the large negative pressure coefficient values on the vehicle's leeward surface correspond to the side force coefficient and yaw moment coefficient
[C.sub.mq]: Pitching damping moment coefficient