However, female size did not contribute to the significant increase in fecundity with multiple mating because monandrous and polyandrous females were distributed randomly within each sibling group (Table 1).
I found that polyandrous females did not lay eggs for a longer period than monandrous females.
The fact that some virgin females might have mated with nonvirgin males was not reflected in lower fertility rates in monandrous compared to polyandrous females.
Greater resistance to disease via polyandry is supported by the ease with which promethea moth larvae are raised in captivity compared to larvae of the monandrous tulip tree moth, which more often succumb to viral or bacterial disease under "crowded" conditions (pers.
In contrast to the monandrous species investigated so far (Karlsson 1994), females of P.
Paternal investment in a monandrous butterfly, Pararge aegeria.
ocreata appear to be essentially monandrous. Males, on the other hand, are capable of mating multiple times, and are potentially polygynous.
On the other hand, if females are primarily monandrous, males will fertilize most or all of the eggs of each female they copulate with.
camptozonale females are likely to be functionally monandrous under field conditions, because mating frequencies observed under field conditions tend to be lower than those observed in the lab (Sadek 2001).
Reductions in female receptivity following mating are associated with male factors transferred during copulation (Raabe 1986; Foster & Ayers 1996), and are temporary for polyandrous species, or permanent for monandrous species (Gadenne et al.
Thus, males of polyandrous species invested a higher share of their total resources to reproduction than did males in monandrous species.
If so, in many groups of insects earlier recognized as mainly monandrous, male transfer of nutrients still might be of some importance to female reproductive success.