Mating frequency in Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz) wolf spider: Evidence for a mating system with female monandry
and male polygyny.
Female monandry would be expected to select for a high degree of choosiness, but in this study 83% of females mated with randomly paired males, and the only significant predictor of mating probability was female age post-maturity.
If mating a second time is not in the best interest of the female, selection would favor resistance and/or avoidance of mating attempts by males, leading to a mating system with female monandry. Water striders provide an example in which sexual selection on mating behavior and morphology is a result of females seeking to avoid matings that may be costly in terms of predation risk or energy expenditure (Rowe et al.
When queens mate only once (monandry) and colonies have only one queen (monogyny), then the average relatedness of the brood, consisting of either brothers and sisters (1) or sons and daughters (2), is equal and r cancels out.
Colonies of Harpagoxenus species rarely if ever have more than one queen and females cease trying to attract males after their first mating, indicating species monandry (Buschinger and Alloway, 1979; A.