monarchianism


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monarchianism

(mōnär`kēənĭzəm) [Gr.,=belief in the rule of one], the concept of God that maintains his sole authority even over Christ and the Holy Spirit. Its characteristic tenet, that God the Father and Jesus are one person, was developed in two forms in early Christianity. Dynamistic monarchians, such as the TheodotiansTheodotians,
small heretical sect, formed c.190 by Theodotus, a Byzantine. It lasted until the end of the 4th cent. The Theodotians taught that Jesus was a man, who became the Christ only after his baptism (a concept basic both to monarchianism and to adoptionism).
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 and Paul of SamosataPaul of Samosata
, fl. 260–72, Syrian Christian theologian, heretical patriarch of Antioch. He was a friend and high official of Zenobia of Palmyra. Paul enounced a dynamic monarchianism, denying the three Persons of the Trinity.
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, held that Jesus was born a man and received the Christ as a power from God at a later time (see adoptionismadoptionism,
Christian heresy taught in Spain after 782 by Elipandus, archbishop of Toledo, and Felix, bishop of Urgel (Seo de Urgel). They held that Jesus at the time of his birth was purely human and only became the divine Son of God by adoption when he was baptized.
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). Modalistic monarchians taught that God is unknowable, except for his manifestations, or modes; Christ is one of these. Because of the consequent implication that God the Father must have died on the cross, they were called Patripassians [Lat.,= the Father suffering]. SabelliusSabellius,
fl. 215, Christian priest and theologian, b. probably Libya or Egypt. He went to Rome, became the leader of those who accepted the doctrine of modalistic monarchianism, and was excommunicated by Pope St. Calixtus I in 220.
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 fully developed modalism.
References in periodicals archive ?
The text of the fabric presents a clear relation with the Monarchianism or Sabellianism (II and III centuries) that identified Jesus with the unique God and denied its true humanity.
(46) From the third century on Monarchianism also took the name of "Sabellianism" from the heretic Sabelius of Libyan origin, who, condemned by Pope Calixto (by 220), spread this doctrine through Egypt and Libya.
(26.) In Christian heresiology, "disbelief in Two Powers in Heaven (so-called Sabellianism, Modalism, or Monarchianism, that is, One Power in Heaven) is named--accurately--'Judaism,' producing a binary opposition between the inside and outside of Christianity and disavowing a threatening difference within." In rabbinic texts, conversely, "the belief in Two Powers in Heaven is excommunicated from within Judaism and named (albeit slightly, but only slightly, obliquely) as 'Christianity'"; "Jewish/Christian Modalism is being constructed as Jewish, Jewish/Christian binitarianism as minut" (Boyarin, Border Lines 137, 138; but see the entire chapter [128-47]).
Tertullian credits Praxeas with introducing monarchianism to Rome from Asia (Prax.
of Sabellius and the Logos Christology of Hippolytus.(84) Andresen seems to support such a view when he argues that Callistus wants to show that the inclusion of the Logos concept in his doctrine `need not lead to the surrender of traditional monarchianism'.(85) W.
The author of CN, however, clearly knows that the modalists appealed to John's Gospel, for he uses it extensively in his refutation of Noetus' doctrine (CN 4.1-8.3), and introduces there two Johannine texts usually associated with modalistic monarchianism (10: 30; 14: 8-10).
On the contrary, the very use of homoousios should be considered the starting point for a reappraisal of Paul's monarchianism and, consequently, for a general reinterpretation of his theology in the frame of the controversies of the third century.
81 (PL 10, 534 B): "per hanc unius essentiae nuncupationem solitarium atque unicum sibi esse Patrem et Filium praedicabat." That monarchianism was the true reason for Paul's condemnation is also stated by Eusebius of Caesarea, De eccl.
He devised a mediating, embryonically trinitarian theology, transcending the ditheism of El without offending the monarchianism of the Callistus school.
That Council determined that to counter Paul's extreme monarchianism, one had to attribute a [upsilon][pi][omicron][sigma][tau][alpha][sigma][iota][sigma] distinct from that of the Father to the Word.[50] The Council Fathers, in this regard, retained that aspect of Origen's teaching, as indeed do most Eastern theologians writing in Greek into the fourth century.[51] On the other hand, to combat Paul's adoptionism, which seemed at least to some degree predicated on the full humanity of the Saviour, they insisted on the personal presence of the divine Word in the Saviour in a manner that excluded the existence of a human soul in Christ.