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monitor,type of turreted warship (no longer used) carrying heavy guns, having little draft, and lying low in the water. Monitors were so called from the first of the class, the Monitor, built for the Union navy in the U.S. Civil War by John EricssonEricsson, John
, 1803–89, Swedish-American inventor and marine engineer, b. Värmlands co., Sweden. He moved to London in 1826, and entered the railroad locomotive Novelty in a contest in 1829, only to be defeated by George Stephenson's Rocket.
..... Click the link for more information. . Launched in Jan., 1862, the Monitor was 179 ft (55 m) long, of 41.5-ft (13-m) beam, and weighed 1,200 tons. A revolving turret, protected by 8 in. (20.3 cm) of iron armor and containing two 11-in. (27.9-cm) smooth-bore guns, was its main feature. The sides were covered by iron plates from 3 to 5 in. (7.6–12.7 cm) thick, with about 27 in. (69 cm) of wood backing, and the deck, only 18 in. (46 cm) above water, was shielded with 1-in. (2.54-cm) armor. The ship was moved by steam power, with a screw propeller. (See Monitor and MerrimackMonitor and Merrimack,
two American warships that fought the first engagement between ironclad ships. When, at the beginning of the Civil War, the Union forces abandoned the Norfolk Navy Yard at Portsmouth, Va., they scuttled the powerful steam frigate Merrimack.
..... Click the link for more information. for more information.) Monitors were used extensively in the Civil War, but the type had limitations—it was too heavy to navigate the oceans—and was eventually abandoned. However, they were used by the British navy in World War I.
monitor,any of various, mostly tropical lizards. A monitor lizard has a heavy body, long head and neck, long tail that comes to a whiplike end, and strong legs with sharp claws. Its slender, forked tongue is protrusible. Monitors range in size from the 8-in. (20-cm) short-tailed species of W Australia to the 10-ft, 300-lb (3-m, 136-kg) Komodo dragon, the giant among living lizards, that lives on the small Indonesian island of Komodo and some smaller neighboring islands. Some monitor species spend their lives in trees, and others inhabit lakes and rivers; they can be found on the oceanic islands and continents of the Eastern Hemisphere in all types of warm habitats, from tropical forest to desert. They feed on various kinds of animal matter, including eggs, rats, frogs, and decaying meat. The larger species will attack small deer and pigs. They often tear the prey with claws and teeth, but generally swallow it whole or in large chunks. Monitors lay from 7 to 35 leathery eggs, usually in holes in the ground or in trees. They are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
..... Click the link for more information. , subphylum Vertebrata, class Reptilia, order Squamata, family Varanidae, genus Varanus.
(Varanidae), a family of reptiles of the lizard suborder. It is represented now by only one living genus, Varanus. The body is elongated, and the legs are well developed; the tail in many species is compressed from the sides. The head is covered with tiny scuta; the scales of the trunk are rounded and protruding. The tongue is long and deeply cleft at the tip. There are 24 species, distributed in tropical, subtropical, and partly temperate regions of the eastern hemisphere; they are absent from Madagascar.
Monitors inhabit open places overgrown with shrubbery; many keep to the banks of rivers and other fresh-water bodies. They swim and dive well and can run rapidly. Monitors are predators and feed on lizards, snakes, and small mammals. They raid birds’ nests and eat large insects and other arthropods. The species that live near water feed mainly on frogs, fish, crabs, mollusks, and other water creatures. The desert monitor (V. griseus), a characteristic inhabitant of the desert also known as the zem-zem, is widespread in North Africa and southwestern Asia (as far east as northwest India), and also in the USSR—in Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and southern Kazakhstan. Desert monitors are 1.5 m long, with pinkish-sandy coloration on top and broad brown transverse stripes on the back and tail. They settle in the burrows of other animals, more rarely digging their own. Sexual maturity comes no earlier than the third year of life. The female lays 10-20 eggs and buries them in sand. On the small island of Komodo and three adjacent islands, located east of the island of Java, lives the largest of contemporary monitors, the Komodo dragon, which attains a length of 3.7 m and weighs up to 100 kg. Giant forms (genus Megalania), up to 10 m in length, have been found in the Pleistocene deposits of Australia. Monitor leather is used for various products, including footwear; the meat is used as food in many countries.
REFERENCESTerent’ev, P. V. Gerpetologiia. Moscow, 1961.
Mertens, R. Die Familie der Warane (Varanidae), vols. 1-3. Frankfurt am Main, 1942-43. (Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, nos. 462, 465, 466.)
S. A. CHERNOV and N. V. SHIBANOV
an older student who served as an assistant teacher in schools using the monitorial system (also known as the Bell-Lancaster or Lancasterian system).
The monitorial system existed in Great Britain, the USA, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Russia at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. (SeeMONITORIAL SYSTEM.)
an American warship designed by the Swedish engineer J. Ericsson and built by the US federal government in 1861–62.
The Monitor was a flat-bottomed armorclad ship with a length of 56.4 m, beam of 12.5 m, draft of 3.6 m, elevation above water of 61 cm, displacement of 1,250 tons, and 130-mm side armor; it was equipped with two 280-mm guns in a revolving turret. On Mar. 9, 1862, during the Civil War in the USA (1861–65), the Monitor forced the Southern ironclad Merrimack to withdraw during a fierce battle in Hampton Roads. The battle pointed up the weakness of the artillery of that time against heavy armor, which led to the strengthening of ship artillery. The Monitor was the prototype of the monitor class of ships.
a class of armored surface ships having artillery and designed to conduct warfare with coast artillery, to destroy enemy ships in coastal waters and in rivers, and to strike at armored, concrete, and other kinds of targets along the coast.
The term “monitor” was derived from the name of the American armored ship Monitor. The monitors built after World War I (1914–18) had a water displacement of about 8,000 tons and a speed of 8–15 knots and were armed with two or three guns of a caliber of up to 381 mm installed in turrets and as many as eight guns of a caliber of 102–120 mm; the thickness of the armor was between 102 and 330 mm; the small draft permitted them to come close to the shore. Monitors were used until World War II (1939–45), especially in rivers. After the war all countries stopped building monitors.
monitor, monitor roof
ii. To keep track of an airborne aircraft by radar and to transmit to it necessary flight information to ensure its safe operation or guidance.
iii. To keep check on a communication channel or network to maintain or improve communication service.
See also gamut, multisync, visual display unit.
Unix man page: monitor(3).
monitor(1) A display screen used to provide visual output from a computer, cable box, video camera, VCR or other video generating device. Computer monitors use CRT and LCD technology, while TV monitors use CRT, LCD and plasma technologies. See analog monitor, digital monitor and flat panel display.
(2) Software that monitors the progress of activities within a computer system. See computer monitoring.
(3) A device that gathers performance statistics of a running system via direct attachment to the CPU's circuit boards. See also network analyzer.
(4) Software that provides utility and control functions such as setting communications parameters. It resides in a ROM or flash memory chip and contains startup and diagnostic routines.