monoculture

(redirected from monoculturalism)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

monoculture

in agricultural practice, the concentration of one crop in a given area. This is generally associated with the growth of commercial agriculture and of CASH CROPPING, and can be contrasted with mixed farming more characteristic of agriculturalists growing for their own consumption. Whilst monoculture may have benefits for some crops, there may also be disadvantages: certain forms of mixed cropping may control pests and preserve the fertility of the soil, whereas monoculture is generally associated with increased use of pesticides and artificial fertilizers. For this reason monoculture is generally associated with large-scale organizations, such as PLANTATIONS, which can mobilize the resources for the necessary inputs and manage the marketing of the crop. Even then, problems for THIRD WORLD countries resulting from monoculture arise from dependence on a few crops for export earnings which are vulnerable to changes in world prices and demand, over which Third World countries may have little control. See also AGRIBUSINESS.

Monoculture

 

(1) The only agricultural crop raised in farming.

(2) Long-term, uninterrupted (repeated) cultivation of one species of plants on one sector (field or garden) without crop rotation (alternation of crops). Monoculture depletes the physical properties of the soil and decreases its humus content. In most cases the soil is depleted of a specific nutrient. For example, long-term cultivation of cereal crops on the same land deprives the soil primarily of phosphorus. Sugar beets and potatoes take away potassium, and legumes remove both phosphorus and calcium. In addition, soil erosion and other problems are associated with monoculture. All of these effects reduce yields sharply, usually by 1.5 to 2 times. The use of fertilizers only slows down the process of depletion. Monoculture creates conditions conducive to the spread of weeds, harmful insects, and pathogens associated with a particular crop.

In capitalist countries such as prerevolutionary Russia, the USA, and Canada monoculture was typical of certain farming regions during the initial period of the development of new lands, when a single crop, such as wheat, was planted in the same place for several years in succession. Subsequently, the fields were abandoned for many years. As agriculture became intensive, monoculture declined, and crop rotation was introduced.

REFERENCE

Zemledelie, 2nd ed. Edited by S. A. Vorob’ev. Moscow, 1972.

V. E. EGOROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Monoculturalism and diversity as represented in publications.
This dynamic undercuts the assumed wholeness of Japanese monoculturalism by suggesting an immigrant--and a criminal at that--possesses greater potential for variegated expression, even if it is primarily one of social alienation.
During the Spanish postwar years, monoculturalism became the chief strategic policy that the Franco regime enforced in order to hijack the political freedom, cultural diversity and economic means of the defeated Republicans.
(8) For Sen the issue is choice: he is concerned about both communitarian monoculturalism and separatist multiculturalism (in effect 'plural monoculturalism'); and he quotes Gandhi's objection to groupist separatism as being the 'vivisection' of the Indian nation.
And, in enforcing monoculturalism, China is also attempting to cover up the cleavages within the Han majority, lest the historical north-south fault lines resurface.
The fifth article, "Globalization: Monoculturalism or Multiculturalism?", by Rik Pinxten, compares mono-culturalism, which has also been referred to as neo-communitarianism, with multi-culturalism and states that both approaches have positive and negative sides.
Monoculturalism as governance was eventually discredited for different reasons.
London, Mar 15 (ANI): Prince Charles has warned that the British countryside risks being ruined by monoculturalism, and that if society continues to spurn village pubs and traditional crafts, it will end up "pulling threads" from the "delicate tapestry" of rural life.
We added the Hispanicism and Americanism subscales together, resulting in a biculturalism score that ranged from cultural marginality (lowest scores) to monoculturalism to biculturalism (highest scores).The second measure was the respondent's duration of residence in the United States.
It makes clear that there is no reason intrinsic to the social body for accepting the reductive form of multiculturalism that Sen despairingly calls "plural monoculturalism" or a "federation of communities." (21) Indeed, we can usually choose which of our many identities to emphasize in any particular context (though others may try to deny us that choice).
For Rendon, these are: "the agreement to privilege intellectual/rational knowing," "the agreement of separation," "the agreement of competition," "the agreement of perfection," "the agreement of monoculturalism," "the agreement to privilege outer work," and "the agreement to avoid self examination" (p.
A major challenge for African American students is the ethnocentric monoculturalism in many schooling environments (Gordon, 1995; Nieto, 2004).