Benjamin Rush, and for a time perhaps by Samuel Stanhope Smith, whom Dain identifies as the most important and influential American theorist of monogenism
in the 19th century.
At the same time, however, he used his very 'modern' knowledge to defend the theory of monogenism
which appeared to his peers as increasingly dated.
The first scientific anomalies challenging the paradigm of monogenism
appeared with Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, and now they are intensifying since the publication of the Human Genome Project, once led by evangelical Christian Francis Collins.
The hierarchical monogenist naturalists used the supposed objectivity of science to question the necessity of Biblical monogenism
. The question of crossing versus change by climate stirred them because it was a general biological issue of the era, and because it had significant implications for white adaptability to colonization.(44) In the 1847 discussion, Milne-Edwards, Dumoutier, and Quatrefages urged more study to determine whether the alleged superiority of colonial blacks to Africans was due to changed climate or crossing with whites.(45)
One needed clarification of the molecular evidence concerns the early human whom geneticists have nicknamed "Mitochondrial Eve." The popular press has misled some into thinking that scientists have discovered evidence for the very first female human, and many Christians have taken this announcement to support the biblical portrait of monogenism
. (4) Mitochondrial Eve, though, is not the founding mother of the human race but only the matrilineal carrier of an ancestral mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule that gave rise to all mtDNA in women today.
In other words, "polygenism" (we have many first human ancestors) has displaced "monogenism
" (the idea that we have just one pair of ancestors) in recent genetics studies of human origins.
In his experience, the most prominent "positions" on the ratchet are Young-Earth Creationism; Old-Earth Creationism; Evolutionary Creationism that retains a literal Adam and Eve as biological progenitors of humanity (evolutionary monogenism
); and Evolutionary Creationism proper (with no scientific concordist expectations of Genesis remaining).
would imagine an historical individual Adam, who in one moment was endowed with spiritual life, and who alone sinned.
In the first section, Domning cites evidence against monogenism
, the view that all humanity is descended from a single couple.