Under worker control, investment ratio should be 3:1 in monogynous
colonies due to relatedness asymmetries, and should approach 1:1 in polygynous colonies because increasing queen number reduces the asymmetry in relatedness between sisters and brothers (Trivers and Hare 1976).
caespitum is obligately monogynous, thus the Hamiltoninn conditions are likely to occur in that species.
Sex-investment ratios and relatedness in the monogynous ant Lasius niger (L.).
The number of monogynous species/total number of species surveyed per genus are listed parenthetically.
For this analysis, we used the same method as developed by Frumhoff and Ward (1992); each genus was categorized according to its predominant condition, with predominance defined as the queen number (multiple versus single) and number of matings (multiple versus single) of the majority of surveyed congeners [table 2; genera with equal number of monogynous and polygynous (or monoandrous and polyandrous) species were not used for this comparison].
Only 4 (24%) of the 17 monogynous species (or genera) were monoandrous, whereas 16 (64%) of the 25 polygynous species (or genera) were monoandrous.
Only three (23%) (Aphaenogaster, Pheidole, and Rhytidiponera) of the 13 predominantly monogynous genera were predominantly monoandrous, whereas five (83%) of the six polygynous genera were predominantly monoandrous.
Four of the 24 genera contained monoandrous and polyandrous as well as monogynous and polygynous species.
However there is no a priori reason to believe that this may have led to a consistent bias in the estimation of frequency of multiple matings in monogynous versus polygynous species.
In conclusion, this survey shows that, as predicted by the GV hypotheses, polyandry is less common among polygynous than among monogynous species.
Conflict in monogynous hymenopteran societies: The structure of conflict and processes that reduce conflict.