monokine


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monokine

[′män·ə‚kīn]
(biochemistry)
A cytokine released from macrophages.
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FGF-basic: basic fibroblast growth factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor; IFN-[gamma]: interferon gamma; IL: interleukin; IP-10: inducible protein 10; KC: keratinocyte chemoat- tractant; MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; MIG: monokine induced by IFN-[gamma]; MIP-[alpha] macrophage inflammatory protein-alfa; TNF-[alpha]: tumor necrosis factor alfa.
(12) IL-8 and the CXC chemokine, monokine induced by interferon gamma (Mig), seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.
XCLl/lymphotactin-[alpha] XCL2/lymphotactin-[beta] CCL2-MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; CCL3-MIP-la: macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alfa; CCL5-RANTES: regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted; CXCL8-IL-8: interleukin-8; CXCL9- MIG: monokine induced by gamma interferon; CXCL10-IP-10: interferon gamma-induced protein 10; CXCL11-I-TAC: interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant.
CXCL9/Mig, a monokine induced by interferon- (IFN-) gamma induced protein 1 (IP-10), is a type 1 C-X-C chemokine and displays strong chemoattraction for T-helper type 1 (Th 1) lymphocytes [57, 58].
The PPAR[gamma] ligands, 15d-PGJ2, troglitazone, and pioglitazone, can inhibit the IFN-[gamma]-induced expression of the CXC chemokines inducing protein-10 and monokine induced by IFN-[gamma]/IFN-inducible T-cell achemoattractant by endothelial cells [34].
In contrast the monokine MIG, also involved in immune activity, was elevated.
The concentration of this monokine in umbilical blood serum of newborns of mothers with intrauterine infections had no significant differences from control values in the peripheral blood of healthy newborns; it made 179.8 [+ or -] 8.20 pg/ml.
(16) These data are well in line with the observation that in human PBMC, DMF inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of IL-8, monokine induced by IFN-[gamma] (Mig) and IP-10, all NF-[kappa]B dependent chemokines.
T cells, representing the adaptive arm of the immune response, also play a critical role in atherogenesis, entering lesions in response to the chemokineinducible protein-10, monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-[gamma], and IFN-inducible T cell [alpha]-chemo-attractant (31).
Table 2-3 Some Types of Cytokines and Their Functions Type Source Function Interleukin-1 Monokine produced by Activates B and activated macrophages T lymphocytes; mediates inflammation Interleukin-2 Lymphokine produced by Growth factor for B and helper T cells T lymphocytes; enhances cytotoxic effects of nonkiller (NK) cells Interferon Lymphokine produced by Activates macrophages; helper and suppressor promotes B- and T-cell T cells differentiation; activates neutrophils and NK cells Tumor necrosis Monokine produced by Mediator of inflammation factor activated macrophages Table 2-4 Phases of Acquired Immunity Phase Action Recognition Exposure to a specific antigen resulting in selective activation and expansion of those lymphocytes with antigenic receptors specific for that antigen.