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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
The digesta samples from the 2 birds within a cage were pooled in sealed bags and stored at -20[degrees]C for the analyses of the monosaccharides and oligosaccharides.
The existence of oligosaccharide which was not completely hydrolyzed into monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose or sucrose, respectively, resulted of the sample to appear at earlier retention time than the standards peaks.
13] Polysaccharides are far less soluble in water compared to common monosaccharides or disaccharides.
The monosaccharide composition of BCPs was examined by gas chromatographic analysis; BCPs are mainly consisted of Gal, Ara, Glc, Rha and Man in the ratio of 13.
Data for the monosaccharide (GalNAc) variant are shown in Fig.
Cell wall polysaccharide composition of soybean seed has been determined by isolating polysaccharides on the basis of their solubility and then degrading the polysaccharides into their monosaccharide sugars (Aspinall and Cottrell, 1971).
As the molecular structures of CTA and CS are based on the cellulosic backbones composed of monosaccharide units linked by [beta]-1,4 glycosidic linkages, their FTIR spectra are similar.
The scientists examined the yields, monosaccharide profile and molecular weight distribution of the generated extracts.
The antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide depends on its combined structural characteristics, including the configuration of the glycosidic bond, molecular weight, and monosaccharide content (Zheng et al.
Comparing the effects of five naturally occurring monosaccharide and oligosaccharide sugars on longevity and carbohydrate nutrient levels of a parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis.
It is comprised of a cationic starch consisting of hydroxypropyl oxidized starch PG trimonium chloride and at least one monosaccharide derived cationic polymer selected from cationic polymers of guar.
Repeated measures ANOVA also showed that among the tested sugars, only the disaccharides, trehalose, maltose, cel-lobiose, and the monosaccharide fructose affected the blank flicking rate (Table 1 ; Fig.