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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, the general low concentrations of monosaccharides can be explained by the genetic differences of hybrid grapes and the short growing season characteristic of the high geographic latitude of the experimental vineyard.
The study, performed in mouse models for asthma research, showed that the synthetic sulfate monosaccharide blocks the interaction between chemokine CCL20-a T-cell signaling protein and heparin sulfate, a molecule that protects and immobilizes CCL20 on epithelial cells in the lung.
From there, more and more monosaccharides jump on, forming a conga line of sugars.
Carbohydrate metabolism in ectomycorrhizas: gene expression, monosaccharide transport and metabolic control.
Comment: Pinitol is a monosaccharide found in high concentrations in soybeans, other legumes, and carob.
The biochemical structures of serogroups H and Z contain monosaccharide glycerol-3-phosphate repeat units and share similarities with teichoic acid polymers.
Overall woody species composition, including monosaccharide fraction, varied little among 1-, 2-, and 3- year old biomass.
Effect of External Electric Field upon Charge Distribution, Energy and Dipole Moment of Selected Monosaccharide Molecules.
The keratin blended with monosaccharide (galactose) and disaccharide (sucrose) showed similar of the absorption peaks but was differed from the starch.
Butyric acid and its monosaccharide ester induce apoptosis in the HL-60 cell line.
The explanation of the above-observed data is probably related to pretreatment with high pressure steaming, which is referred as auto-hydrolysis, and the acid-catalyzed breakdown, or degradation of hemicellulose chains to its monosaccharide (e.
Interspecific variation in bulk tissue, fatty acid and monosaccharide [delta][sup.