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for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information. set by the Monotype machine. See printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
..... Click the link for more information. .
(in art), a type of print graphics. The technique of monotype consists in the application of inks by hand to the ideally smooth surface of a plate, with subsequent printing on a press; the print produced is always unique. Works executed in monotype are characterized by subtlety of color relations and smoothness and softness of the edges of shapes, which outwardly makes monotype similar to watercolors. The monotype technique has been known since the 17th century but has been in wide use only since the late 19th century. The major figures in Russian and Soviet monotype are E. S. Kruglikova, A. V. Shevchenko, and R. N. Barto.
an automatic composing machine used for setting complicated book and journal text in the form of lines consisting of individual characters. The Monotype was invented in 1897 by T. Lanston (USA). The first Monotypes in the USSR were manufactured in 1947 at the Leningrad Printing Machinery Plant.
The executive program for an automatic caster is produced by a specialized MK programmer in the form of a wide punched tape (a combination of one to four holes corresponds to each symbol). During programming, the counter of the device adds the widths of the set symbols and space between words and calculates how much space must be added to make the length of the lines correspond to the predetermined measure. The operator codes the necessary increase in spacing width onto the tape by pressing two keys, based on readings from the scale on the set drum. The MK-5 programmer (Figure 1) has 364 keys and can be used to encode 288 different symbols and spaces and the required commands for controlling the automatic unit.
The MO-5 automatic caster (Figure 2) has a die case, a mold, and a caster. The dies are secured in the die case. The punched tape is decoded in the automatic unit in the sequence opposite to the sequence in which it was set. Upon receiving a command from the punched tape, the die case shifts and the required matrix moves over the casting cavity of the mold, whose width is determined automatically by a command from the punched tape. Then the mold, together with the depression in the matrix, is filled with molten type metal under pressure. As a result the required symbol or space is cast. The cast letters and spaces are pushed into the line channel. The lines of type, which are of identical length, are formed from individual characters and spaces. Galleys are made up from the lines.
The rate of preparation of the executive program for the automatic unit is close to the typing speed on an ordinary typewriter. The automatic caster casts up to 180 characters per minute.
REFERENCESBushunov, V. T. Monotip (Nabornaia i otlivnaia mashiny). Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Shul’meister, M. V. Monotip: Ustroistvo i ekspluatatsiia bukvootlivnykh nabornykh mashin, books 1–2. Moscow, 1961–63.
G. S. ERSHOV