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motor vehicle whose design is based on the bicycle. The German inventor Gottlieb Daimler is generally credited with building the first practical motorcycle in 1885. The motorcycle did not become dependable and popular, however, until after 1900.
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a name designating a two-wheeled vehicle with an internal-combustion engine with a piston displacement of up to 49.8 cm3 and pedal and chain drive to the rear wheel.
In the USSR, light mopeds are equipped with an engine having a piston displacement of 45 cm3 and a power of 0.88–1.1 kilowatt (kW), or 1.2–1.5 hp; they have no transmission and are capable of speeds of up to 40 km/hr. Standard mopeds are equipped with a one-cylinder two-cycle engine with a piston displacement of 49.8 cm3 and a power of 1.62–1.84 kW (2.2–2.5 hp), with a two-speed transmission. They are capable of speeds of up to 50 km/hr. Shifting is accomplished by operating a handle on the left handlebar. Pedals are used to start the engine, for braking, and as a support for the feet while riding. Mopeds are also frequently equipped with a stepless, automatic V-belt drive and an electronic ignition system. Mopeds with a motor driven by a storage battery have appeared in some foreign countries.
Mass production of mopeds began in the late 1940’s and is increasing continuously. In the USSR mopeds are manufactured in Riga and L’vov (see Table 1). Production in 1972 was 340,000 units.
|Table 1. Technical characteristics of Soviet mopeds|
|Riga-7||Riga- 12 and Verkhovina-4|
|Type of engine .....||D-6||Sh-57|
|Maximum engine power,|
kW (hp) .....
|0.88 (1 .2)|
@ 4,500 rpm
@ 5,300 rpm
|Maximum speed (km/hr) .....||40||50|
|Weight (kg) .....||36||52|
REFERENCEGrishin, E. M., and Z. la. lanson. Mopedy: Ustroistvo i ekspluatatsiia. Moscow, 1966.
S. IU. IVANITSKII and B. V. SINEL’NIKOV
e-bike(Electric-BIKE) A bicycle that is augmented with an electric motor. E-bikes are powered by a rechargeable battery, but the rider still uses the pedals. However, when going up hills or wanting a boost, the electric motor makes the ride easier.
|An Electric Bike|
|This unisex 26" bicycle from Schwinn has a 250-watt motor, and the thumb-driven controller on the handle bars adjusts the assistance level. (Image courtesy of Schwinn Bicycles, www.schwinn.com)|
|An Electric Moped|
|Mopeds have traditionally been powered by internal combustion engines; however, all-electric mopeds are also available. This GigaByke Groove has pedals in case the battery is drained. (Image courtesy of GIGABYKE, www.gigabyke.com)|