Moral panic is often perpetuated by the news media and fuelLed by moral entrepreneurs
. These are individuals or formal organiSations that seek to influence a group to adopt or maintain a norm.
This stigmatization effort is usually led by moral entrepreneurs
, for example international legal experts, religious leaders, or public intellectuals.
are activists who attempt to persuade others to adhere to a particular value system.
The most influential moral entrepreneurs
for Arab youth who live in the MENA region and beyond are no longer preachers in the mosques.
Hafner-Burton's analysis aims to steal our eyes from the more conventional explanations of such developments--among them the notion that moral entrepreneurs
, such as NGOs and activist citizens, have played the key, causal role in changing the face of global trade regulation.
As Andrew Lees points out with respect to crime and urban Germany, "moral entrepreneurs
," busybodies in the line of morality-mongering as they might seem today, arose among reactionaries and modernizing reformers alike.
and the campaign to ban landmines.
It is symbolic in terms of the outline of a principle, a shadow of control-to-come, and a compromised compromise between the three core groups--distantly interested, distracted government, core cadre of politically active and energetically noisy moral entrepreneurs
, and economically anchored dealers eager to join the regulatory circus to defuse from the inside whatever explosive possibilities may be in store.
The new act regarding alcoholism (Act on Alcohol and Alcohol Related Problems) in force since 2001 has been the result of greater debate among various groups: economic entrepreneurs, health entrepreneurs, and moral entrepreneurs
. The discussion concerning the degree of advertising regulation among the "entrepreneurs" involved was probably the cause of the delay in approval of the act.
The American government campaign to attack Iraq was in part based on the assumptions that the Iraqi government had "Weapons of Mass Destruction." This was never proven prior to the US police action/war and even President Bush, after the capture of Baghdad, stated, "we may never find such weapons." Cohen's research on deviance discussed this process of how the media and various moral entrepreneurs
and government enforcers can conspire to create a panic.
By contrast, the position of what he calls "moral entrepreneurs
" do persuade us, but such persuasion does not come via rational argument.