In what follows, different elements of death drive including repetition compulsion, melancholia, ambivalence, and moral masochism
are explained drawing examples from Endgame.
Erotogenic masochism refers to the derivation of sexual pleasure from masochism, female masochism to the expression of womens "feminine nature," and moral masochism
to "norms of behavior" (276).
In the 'Economic Problem of Masochism' (1924), Freud, working from Krafft-Ebing's early formulations, develops distinctions between different types of masochism: primary or erotogenic masochism, he suggests, can develop into moral masochism
(the result of unconscious guilt) or feminine masochism (the staging of a 'characteristically female situation').
This attitude of willful submission is akin to Freud's concept of moral masochism
, that is, an unconscious need for punishment "through the pursuit of pain, subjugation and humiliation at the hands of all authority or the hands of fate" (Glick and Myers 5).
Among his topics are the crucifixion of Christ as a narration of grandiose moral masochism
, resurrection as the victory of the cross, from the cross to the sword in the crusades, and the Holocaust's hooked cross and Christian antisemitism.
He contends that Tolstoy, himself already "masochistically inclined" as a child (102), in the course of his life developed "unrelenting masochistic and narcissistic needs" (167) that left him particularly receptive to "the message of moral masochism
in the Gospels" (79), expressed in the idea of passive nonresistance, the acceptance of "suffering for its own sake" (125).
Freud not only regards moral masochism
as a guilty displacement of the repressed desire for the father of the negative Oedipus complex, but observes that this familiarly achieves regressive articulation in "the wish" to be "beaten by the father" (1991e: 424).
Freud did argue, however, in relation to moral masochism
that the vicissitudes of the instincts that converted sadism into masochism regularly occurred "under the condition of civilized suppression of the instincts, which withholds a great part of the destructive instinctual components from being exercised in life" (200).
It is in his definition of moral masochism
that Freud once again rethinks his 1919 supposition that masochism derives from sadism:
This need not be understood as a contradiction, indeed already in Freud's view masochism can encompass the moral masochism
which men experience more strongly than women.
41) Writing of a "self-shattering" that is distinct from an anecdotal "masochism to which the melancholy of the post-Oedipal superego's moral masochism
is wholly alien," Bersani proposes a disintegration distinct from one which could be discussed within the terms of an already existing sovereign subject.