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see grammargrammar,
description of the structure of a language, consisting of the sounds (see phonology); the meaningful combinations of these sounds into words or parts of words, called morphemes; and the arrangement of the morphemes into phrases and sentences, called syntax.
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the minimal meaningful part of an utterance and one of the basic units of a language system. The characteristics of morphemes are meaningfulness—morphemes convey lexical or grammatical meaning; repeatability—morphemes retain the same (or similar) meaning and the same (or similar) form when they appear in different contexts; and nonreducibility— morphemes cannot be further divided into parts having the same characteristics. The morpheme is also defined as the smallest meaningful part of a word and as a class of morphs possessing specific characteristics.

The detection of a morpheme begins with the division of utterances in a language into morphs; then, morphs similar in content and form and found in complementary or noncontrastive distribution (not causing differences of meaning) are combined into a single morpheme. For example, the Russian morpheme drug, “friend,” has the morphs drug~druzh~druz’ This level of analysis, which establishes the allomorphs of a single morpheme, is called identification. Identification is followed by the classification of the morpheme. According to their position in the language system, morphemes are divided into free morphemes capable of behaving as independent words, such as English day, German Tag, and Russian tikh; bound morphemes that occur only as part of a word, such as the plural formant -s in English days, or the adjectival ending -ii in Russian tikhii, “quiet“); and relatively bound morphemes that may occur in both free and bound form, such as Russian do, used as preposition and as prefix, in doletef do reki, “to fly up to the river.”

Morphemes are divided by function into auxiliary (affixal) and nonauxiliary (radical), of which the former are usually bound and the latter free. As a rule, the number of affixal morphemes is limited to a few dozen, while the number of radical morphemes is unlimited. Affixal morphemes are divided according to types of meaning conveyed, into derivational (word-forming), relational (word-altering, or inflectional), and relational-derivational (form-creating). The last two categories are often combined under the term “word-altering.”

Morphemes may convey meaning not only by their phonological presence in a given word but also by their absence (zero ending, zero allomorph). For example, the Russian word stol, “table,” is construed as nominative singular since it lacks the morphemic plural marker -y (Russian stoly, “tables“) as well as any relational morphemes indicating oblique case (the sign for zero ending is -#, as in stol[-#]). Most linguists regard the morpheme as a unit that correlates linguistic expression with linguistic content, that is, as a two-sided semiotic unit. Less often, the morpheme is regarded as the smallest unit of linguistic expression.


References in periodicals archive ?
Only two of the vocabulary studies included both a vocabulary measure and a reading comprehension measure and the effect sizes for students who received a combination of morphemic and contextual analysis instruction ranged from -0.
stair, prior to staircase) initially slowed typing of the first letter of the second constituent, but then, later in the experiment, the processing system took advantage of this cue, perhaps by boosting activation to the entire morphemic structure, which speeded the time required to initiate the second constituent.
As a result, reading in alphabetic orthography should benefit from awareness of the morphemic structure of the unpointed script.
Thus, there is a certain amount of information enclosed in any text at all the levels mentioned above (phonetic, morphemic, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, macro-phonetic, etc.
the morphemic material -anna is necessarily already in place before the analogical extension described in Figure 1 and (32) takes place.
Such diphthongs are not included in the vowel inventory of Hindko because they are not separate phonemes as most of them come into being due to morphemic operations under specific conditions or result due to any elision process as shown below:
Although this evidence did not clearly state the orthographic and morphemic information that were represented in the same level in the lexicon, it was clear that phonological syllables were processed earlier than orthographic syllables.
It would be hard to argue that Conrad's English is directly shaped by the specific features of creole storytelling identified by Kamau Brathwaite--"the mixing of prose and verse, the mixing of phonetic, morphemic, lexical, syntactical, and suprasegmental elements, the mixing of orthographies and written dialects, the switching among codes" (quoted in Haring, "From Formalism to Ideology," 163).
That's because the soul of logology is letter play, not morphemic manipulation, alphabetic accidents, not the syntactic rearrangement of meaning-bearing elements.
morphemes, and textual and manuscript context), since orthographic and morphemic concerns are of paramount importance in this corpus (Stenroos, 2007).
Unlocking word meanings strategies and guidelines for teaching morphemic and contextual analysis," James F.
Therefore, it is glossed as non-singular agent morpheme in the morphemic analysis.