morphogen


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morphogen

[′mȯr·fə·jən]
(biochemistry)
Any compound that exerts a morphogenetic effect at low concentrations.
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"A tricky problem in reliably constructing tissues outside of an organism in general is how to present key signaling molecules, also termed morphogens, to the cells in culture at the right time and dose," said Matthias Lutolf, whose research group led the research.
Inductive morphogenes, stem cells, scaffold have been identified as three key elements necessary for tooth regeneration.
In 1969, Brian Goodwin and Morrel Cohen made a significant contribution to developmental biology (Goodwin & Cohen, 1969), by proposing a mathematical model to describe cellular-scale morphogen concentration profiles for pattern formation.
Thus, parafibromin integrates and converts signals conveyed by these morphogen pathways into appropriate transcriptional outputs in a tyro sine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation-regulated manner.
It was proposed that the notochord releases a morphogen that may regulate MHP formation.
Sonenberg, "Cap-dependent translational inhibition establishes two opposing morphogen gradients in Drosophila embryos," Current Biology, vol.
Seftor et al., "Regulation of the embryonic morphogen nodal by Notch4 facilitates manifestation of the aggressive melanoma phenotype," Cancer Research, vol.
BMP-2 is a key morphogen for transcriptional activation of osteoblast lineage commitment and hence influence bone metabolism and strength (Banerjee et al., 2001).
A symbiont-derived morphogen is tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a fragment of the bacterial envelope component peptidoglycan, which works in synergy with a second envelope component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to trigger a morphogenesis nearly indistinguishable from the developmental program that occurs naturally (Koropatnick et al., 2004).
This study showed that dentin-related morphogen factors influence the differentiation of stem cells toward an odontoblast-like cell phenotype [35].
In comparison, the more derived molecular activities first appeared in the BE taxonomic group (e.g., "structural molecule activity [GO:0005198]," "nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity [GO:0001071]," and "channel regulator activity [GO:0016247])," while the recent innovations occurred uniquely in Eukarya (e.g., "receptor regulator activity [GO:0030545], "translation regulator activity [GO:0045182]," "metallochaperone activity [GO:0016530]," "morphogen activity [GO:0016015]," and "protein tag [GO:0031386]").
MPs generated from the activated T -lymphocyte, harboring the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog, regulate angiogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms (52).