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The transformation involved in the growth and differentiation of cells and tissue. Also known as topogenesis.



the rise and development of organs, systems, and parts of organisms in their individual development (ontogeny), as well as in their historical, or evolutionary, development (phylogeny). The study of morphogenesis is one of the principal areas of plant, animal, and human morphology.

The established lawlike regularities of morphogenesis provided important evidence for the evolution of organisms. Contributors to the study of morphogenesis [followed by the years in which they made important discoveries] were Aristotle (fourth century B.C.), P. Belon (1555), W. Harvey (1651), C. F. Wolff (1759), J. W. von Goethe (1790, 1795), E. Geoffrey SaintHilaire (1831), K. E. von Baer (1828–37), W. Hofmeister (1851), E. Haeckel (1866), I. N. Gorozhankin (1875, 1880), and A. N. Severtsov (1931, 1939).

The study of morphogenetic features at various stages of ontogeny for the purpose of controlling the development of organisms is a basic concern of developmental biology, genetics, molecular biology, and evolutionary physiology. Morphogenetic research is also important in the study of heredity.


Shmal’gauzen, 1.1. Reguliatsiia formoobrazovaniia v individual’nom razvitii. Moscow, 1964.
Sinnott, E. Morfogenez rastenii. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from English.)
Waddington, C. Morfogenez igenetika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Extracellular matrix components that include glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), aforementioned alpha-6 integrin, fibronectin, cadherinsand collagens also regulate branching morphogenesis. These extracellular matrix components accumulate on the cleft site instead of the bud site.1,19 Fibronectin present in early epithelial buds induces cell-matrix adhesions on epithelial cells of salivary glands.
Thesleff, "Reiterative signaling and patterning during mammalian tooth morphogenesis," Mechanisms of Development, vol.
Caption: Rice University materials scientists have mapped the morphogenesis of cement hydrates used in concrete.
2D cell culture studies have provided many insights into cell development, disease pathology, tissue morphogenesis and other areas.
These events include heart tube formation, looping, growth, and development of heart chambers along with endocardium and septal morphogenesis. The first step is the migration of two primordial epithelial tubes, followed by fusion leading to formation of heart tube [2].
PAX8, together with PAX2, regulates branching morphogenesis and nephron differentiation, whereas female mice lacking PAX8 demonstrate defects in genital tract formation and are unable to produce offspring [8].
DLX6 and DLX5 code transcription factors are largely restricted to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), a specialized region in the ectoderm required for normal limb skeletal development and morphogenesis [6].
Keywords: Ammonium nitrate, inflorescence, morphogenesis, plant growth regulators, sucrose.
Cell adhesion: the molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Cell, 84(3):345-57, 1996.
Spectral quality affects morphogenesis on Anthurium plantlet during in vitro culture.Journal of Agricultural Science, 32(3), 234-240.