In describing their children's birth mothers, the
adoptive mothers try to reconcile their gratitude for the opportunity to parent with an understanding of how they could relinquish a child.
For many of the mothers, the
most difficult aspect of coping with fathers' absence was the effect it had on their children.
Often, as treatment transforms their mothers, the
children have to get to know them all over again, Smith said.
Compared with normal mothers, the
mutant females took 8 times longer to build nests and 11 times longer to retrieve wayward pups.
The focus of the study was to present definitions of child support from both noncustodial fathers and custodial mothers, the
barriers they experience that prevent child support and visitation, and suggestions the parents have for improvements in the child support system.
Some of these groups were local, but Grant also investigates the role of three national organizations--the National Congress of Mothers, the
Child Study Association of America, and the American Association of University Women--in the delicate dance between valuing and resisting "scientific" child-rearing advice.
Among the mothers, the
operation had "no detectable effect on future fertility," the team reports.
Despite the broad consensus among policy makers, charities and women's groups in favor of some form of subsidy for poor mothers, the
passage of the mothers' pensions bill led to sharp conflict over the program's cost, and who would control it.
Among children with healthy mothers, the
younger subjects--between 5 and 6 years old--reported fre symptoms of guilt and little emotional involvement in the problems of others, but the older children in this group displayed a marked increase in guilt.