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Mt, symbol for the element meitnerium.
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Montana State Information

Phone: (406) 444-2511

Area (sq mi):: 147042.40 (land 145552.43; water 1489.96) Population per square mile: 6.40
Population 2005: 935,670 State rank: 0 Population change: 2000-20005 3.70%; 1990-2000 12.90% Population 2000: 902,195 (White 89.50%; Black or African American 0.30%; Hispanic or Latino 2.00%; Asian 0.50%; Other 8.60%). Foreign born: 1.80%. Median age: 37.50
Income 2000: per capita $17,151; median household $33,024; Population below poverty level: 14.60% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $22,929-$25,406
Unemployment (2004): 4.30% Unemployment change (from 2000): -0.50% Median travel time to work: 17.70 minutes Working outside county of residence: 8.30%

List of Montana counties:

  • Anaconda-Deer Lodge County
  • Beaverhead County
  • Big Horn County
  • Blaine County
  • Broadwater County
  • Butte-Silver Bow County
  • Carbon County
  • Carter County
  • Cascade County
  • Chouteau County
  • Custer County
  • Daniels County
  • Dawson County
  • Fallon County
  • Fergus County
  • Flathead County
  • Gallatin County
  • Garfield County
  • Glacier County
  • Golden Valley County
  • Granite County
  • Hill County
  • Jefferson County
  • Judith Basin County
  • Lake County
  • Lewis & Clark County
  • Liberty County
  • Lincoln County
  • Madison County
  • McCone County
  • Meagher County
  • Mineral County
  • Missoula County
  • Musselshell County
  • Park County
  • Petroleum County
  • Phillips County
  • Pondera County
  • Powder River County
  • Powell County
  • Prairie County
  • Ravalli County
  • Richland County
  • Roosevelt County
  • Rosebud County
  • Sanders County
  • Sheridan County
  • Stillwater County
  • Sweet Grass County
  • Teton County
  • Toole County
  • Treasure County
  • Valley County
  • Wheatland County
  • Wibaux County
  • Yellowstone County
  • Counties USA: A Directory of United States Counties, 3rd Edition. © 2006 by Omnigraphics, Inc.

    Montana Parks

    Parks Directory of the United States, 5th Edition. © 2007 by Omnigraphics, Inc.


    McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


    The country code for Malta.
    This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (

    magnetic tape

    A sequential storage medium used for data collection, backup and archiving. The first electronic storage medium, magnetic tape is made of flexible plastic with one side coated with a ferromagnetic material. Tapes were originally open reels but were superseded by cartridges and cassettes of many sizes and shapes. Today, LTO is the only surviving tape technology. See LTO.

    Tape has always been more economical than disks for archival data; however, disk capacities have increased enormously while the cost per bit has been reduced dramatically. In addition, if tapes are stored for the duration, they must be periodically recopied or the tightly coiled magnetic surfaces may contaminate each other.

    Sequential Medium
    The major drawback of tape is its sequential format. Locating a specific record requires reading every record in front of it or searching for markers that identify predefined partitions. Although tapes today are used for archiving rather than real-time updating, some drives allow rewriting in place if the byte count remains the same. Otherwise, updating requires reading the original tape, changing the data or inserting new records and rewriting everything onto another tape.

    Track Formats
    Data are recorded in blocks of contiguous bytes, separated by a space called an "interrecord gap" or "interblock gap." Drive speed is measured in inches per second (ips). Over the decades, storage density jumped from 200 bits per square inch to millions and billions of bits. See magnetic tape formats.

    Tracks on Magnetic Tape
    Except for helical scan, most tracks on tape run parallel to the length of the tape. See helical scan and serpentine recording.


    (MegaTransfers per SECond) A measurement of bus and channel speed in millions of "effective" cycles per second. Also written as "MT/s," it is a rating of the actual, delivered speed rather than the frequency of the clock. For example, if timing is derived from both the rising and falling edges of the cycle rather than one complete cycle, a 400 MHz clock yields 800 MT/sec.

    For "gigatransfers," substitute the M with a G (GT/sec, GT/s). For example, at a double data rate, an 800 MHz clock yields 1.6 GT/sec.

    MT/sec for RAM
    The bus transfer rate for this DDR2 DIMM module is 800 MT/sec, which derives a total bandwidth of 6400 MB/sec (800 x 8 bytes). See memory module.


    A feature within a CPU that allows two or more instruction streams (threads) to execute concurrently. Each stream is a "subprocess" that is managed by the CPU and operating system. Multithreading takes advantage of the superscalar architecture in most CPUs combined with the fact that while one operation takes place, very often another can proceed simultaneously. For example, as soon as an instruction to output data to storage is given, a huge number of data processing instructions (compare, copy, goto, etc.) can be executed while storage is being written. Depending on the program logic, instructions can be executed out of sequence and benefit from some overlap.

    Both operating systems and applications may be written to use threads. However, designing the program logic for multithreading that ensures instructions are always executed without conflict can be a daunting task.

    Multicore vs. Multithreading
    Multicore CPUs have two or more processing cores, each capable of executing instructions in parallel. In fact, except for low-cost microcontrollers, most CPUs have two or more cores. In contrast, multithreading occurs within a single processing core to increase performance approximately 25%. Each thread is a "logical core" rather than a physical core. See microcontroller.

    Today's CPUs generally support at least two threads per core, but some handle many more. For example, IBM's POWER10 CPU comes with up to 15 cores, and each core handles eight threads for a total of 120 threads. Tasks such as video rendering and machine vision, which perform millions of identical calculations on a matrix of pixels, are candidates for multithreading. See superscalar, SMP, re-entrant code, multicore, multiprocessing and Hyper-Threading.

    No Multithreading
    Each of these two cores in this dual-core CPU example is executing instructions independently of the other. The arrows point to the two machine instructions being executed at the moment.

    Dual Cores and Two Threads
    Each core has two threads, which provides some degree of overlap within the routines that are executing simultaneously. If both threads in both cores are executing, four operations are taking place simultaneously.

    Threads Galore
    The cover of Software Development Times in November 2012 highlighted the issue that CPUs with many cores provide more channels of parallel instruction execution.
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