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(myo͞o'kəpŏlēsăk`ərīd), class of polysaccharide molecules, also known as glycosaminoglycans, composed of amino-sugars chemically linked into repeating units that give a linear unbranched polymeric compound. The monomeric amino-sugar constituents are ordinary monosaccharides that contain a nitrogen atom covalently bound to one of the ring carbons of the sugar portion. The nitrogen is, in turn, either bonded to two atoms of hydrogen (termed a primary amino-group) or to another carbon atom (hence, a substituted amino-group). The mucopolysaccharides are quite similar structurally to the more well-known animal and plant polysaccharides such as glycogenglycogen
, starchlike polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) that is found in the liver and muscles of humans and the higher animals and in the cells of the lower animals. Chemically it is a highly branched condensation polymer of glucose; it is readily hydrolyzed to glucose.
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 and starchstarch,
white, odorless, tasteless, carbohydrate powder. It plays a vital role in the biochemistry of both plants and animals and has important commercial uses. In green plants starch is produced by photosynthesis; it is one of the chief forms in which plants store food.
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. Chitinchitin
, main constituent of the shells of arthropods. Chitin, a polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) analogous in chemical structure to cellulose, consists of units of a glucose derivative (N-acetyl-d
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 is a particularly plentiful mucopolysaccharide and serves, like cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 does in plants, as a structural polysaccharide for many phyla of lower plants and animals. The shells of lobsters, crayfish, crabs, insects, and many other invertebrate organisms contain mostly chitin complexed with inorganic salts. The copepods, a group of microscopic marine organisms of the subphylum Crustacea, alone are considered to synthesize about 109 tons of chitin per year. Chitin is probably the second most abundant large organic compound on earth (the first being cellulose). Heparinheparin
, anticoagulant produced by cells in many animals. A polysaccharide, heparin is found in the human body and occurs in greatest concentration in the tissues surrounding the capillaries of the lungs and the liver.
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, an anticoagulant used widely in the treatment of blood clotting disorders, such as pulmonary embolus, is a mucopolysaccharide. Another important compound of this class is hyaluronic acid, a molecule found universally in the connective tissues of animals and in the fluids of their eyes and joints. Hyaluronic acid in association with protein has been isolated from various organisms, and such complexes are thought to bind water in the cellular spaces, thus holding cells together in a jellylike matrix. In addition, such substances may provide the fluids of joints with lubricating and shock-absorbing qualities. Many other mucopolysaccharides are, like hyaluronic acid, associated with proteins; the separation between such proteoglycans and glycoproteins is somewhat arbitrary, but the latter compounds are distinguished by their relative paucity of sugars.



a carbohydrate-protein polymer containing 70 to 80 percent carbohydrates. Most extensively studied have been the various types of acid mucopolysaccharides in connective tissue, in the synovia of the joints, and in the vitreous body of the eye.

The major types of mucopolysaccharides are hyaluronic acid, heparin, chondroitin sulfuric acids, and keratosulfate (found in cartilage and cornea). The carbohydrate portion of acid mucopolysaccharides is a linear polysaccharide consisting of periodically repeating units with N-sulfoaminosugar or N-acetylaminosugar residues (D-glucosamine or D-galactosamine) and uronic acid. The sulfuric acid residues in sulfate mucopolysaccharides are bound to the hydroxyl groups of monosaccharide components. Acid mucopolysaccharides differ widely in molecular weight, in binding energy of the components, and in functional properties.

Owing to their capacity to bind and hold water, acid mucopolysaccharides serve as a natural lubricant in the joints and impart elasticity to connective tissue. As a component of cartilage and ligaments, mucopolysaccharides are involved in support and motor functions. They also have bactericidal properties.

With aging, the composition of the mucopolysaccharides in connective tissue changes. Dysfunction in the mucopolysaccharide metabolism leads to a change in the composition of connective tissue and of the body fluids, resulting in diseases such as collagenosis, mucopolysaccharidosis, and rheumatism.


Stacey, M., and S. Barker. Uglevody zhivykh tkanei. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)
Stepanenko, B. N. Uglevody: Uspekhi v izuchenii stroeniia i metabolizma. Moscow, 1968.
Kasavina, B. S., T. A. Kol’chinskii, and G. D. Zenkevich. “Mukopolisakharidy kostnoi i khriashchevoi tkani v norme i patologii.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1970, vol. 69, issue 3.



Any of a group of polysaccharides containing an amino sugar and uronic acid; a constituent of mucoproteins, glycoproteins, and blood-group substances.
References in periodicals archive ?
Focally, on the mucosal aspect, colonies of Gram-negative bacteria were noted within a mucopolysaccharide matrix.
These extracts could be compartmentalized in the mucopolysaccharides of the glycocalyx like prebiotic mixture.
Insulin increases synthesis of mucopolysaccharides in the chondrocytes whereas it elevates synthesis of proteoglycans in the tumor cells obtained from the chondrosarcoma cells.
In the patient in question, dural thickening is not noted, but the presence of cervical cord thickening and T2 hyperintensity lead us to speculate that in this case the myelopathy is at least in part secondary to infiltration with mucopolysaccharides.
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a rare inherited biochemical disorder characterised by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues owing to insufficient amounts of the enzyme galactosamine sulphate (type A) and galactosidase (type B) to break them down.
The family has helped raise funds toward that potential cure, as their local chemist, Norton Glebe Pharmacy, celebrated its first anniversary last month with events in aid of the Society for Mucopolysaccharide Diseases and Marie Curie Cancer Care.
a fibro-gelatinous mass composed of 80%-90% water, collagen, and a mucopolysaccharide matrix); and the peripheral annulus fibrosus (formed by the concentric alternating lamellae of obliquely oriented collagenous fibers).
In the study, the researchers were able to show that the clotting agent, heparan cofactor II/Thrombin (HCII/T) complex, could be used as a 'biomarker', or biological tell, in individuals with mucopolysaccharide (MPS) diseases.
This study compared the use of a combination of glucosamine (1800 mg/day), active absorbable algal calcium (900 mg/day), porcine skin collagen (10,500 mg/day), composite mucopolysaccharide (600 mg/day), and vitamin C (600 mg/ day) with control for 80 patients with knee or low back pain.
Result this studied base of research nakano et al [16,17], was showen that [beta]-caroten significantly decreased levels of lipid proxidase in the liver in rainbow trout [16,17] and fishes were feel with carotenoid supplement significantly altred the total lipid profile and hepatic mucopolysaccharide content [19].