Mujtahid

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Mujtahid

 

a Muslim theologian and legal expert who in the Middle Ages possessed the ijtihad (the right of independent interpretation of religious and legal matters). In Sunnism, the mujtahid is the founder and head of the madhabs (schools of Muslim jurisprudence). In Shiism, the mujtahid is a representative of the most influential circles of the upper Shiite clergy (called mojtahed in Persian).

References in periodicals archive ?
Yet, they were generally accepted as scholars, not Mujtahids. Indubitably, Muslims did a colossal and grave mistake by closing the doors of Ijtehad.
Similarly there should be complete ban on hurting and outrageous slogans and no sacrilegious remarks will be made about Imams, Mujtahids and Islamic Jurisprudents.
They achieved this by stratifying legal knowledge in their typologies of muftis and judges in ways that had not been envisioned earlier, justifying their typologies by invoking tropes of decline and the extinction of mujtahids. This longue-duree view will shed light on the institutional significance of the taqlidification of Islamic law, where legal security and stability were privileged over judicial discretion.
The Assembly of Experts is a deliberative body of Mujtahids (Islamic theologians) that is tasked with appointing and removing Iran's supreme leader and supervising his activities.
The Experts Assembly of Iran is a deliberative body of 86 Mujtahids (Islamic scholars).
The Islamic judiciary was at its best when it was a creative judiciary in which judges were to be mujtahids. However, the era of ijtihad started gradually to decline and gave a way to the emergence of the secondary approach, which is al-taqlid.
The law banned all Iranians from wearing religious dress except for certain state-defined categories of clerics, including mujtahids with certificates of ijtihad recognized by a marja, clerics in rural areas who had passed the necessary exams, Sunni clerics with permission to issue fatwas, mosque leaders, seminarians with a clerical certificate issued by the Ministry of Culture, seminary teachers, clergymen of other religions and those with permission from a mujtahid to transmit or teach the hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and the twelve Shiite imams).
Beyond that theme, the articles traverse broad chronological and topical ground, offering examinations of such subjects as the Nujtavi movement of the 15th to 17th century, the reactions of mujtahids (religious scholars) to Christian evangelicalism in the early 19th century, the nature of the clerical hierarchy and the emergence of the "source of emulations" in the 19th century as the form of clerical authority, the changes in understandings of clerical authority promoted by Ayatollah Khomenei, the role of the American "Great Satan" in achieving discipline over the revolutionary self and its roots in the demonology of Cold War propaganda, and expressions of popular piety in contemporary Iran.
However, in his work on Islamic government, the late Iranian supreme leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, expanded the jurisdiction of mujtahids over their followers to include, in addition to issues of faith, issues of a political, social and economic nature.
With the increasing crystallisation of the Ja'fari theology, the mujtahids (called ayatollahs today) became the most powerful members of the religious classes.
(6) This book includes parts of the writings by ten mujtahids about jihad against the Russians, along with the editor's commentaries.
Many scholars have taken politicized 'ulama for granted as a kind of 'traditional' characteristic among Shi'i 'ulama, such as Kelidar, who takes the examples of Muhammad Taqi al-Shirazi or Shaykh Mahdi al-Khalisi as "[t]he activists among the Mujtahids" who "rel[ied] on their powers of interpretation, and the deployment of the philosophical approach, to justify an energetic, even a violent campaig n in the quest for good government." [12] Except for the rare case of achieving solidarity among Sunni and Shi'i 'ulama in the 1920 uprising in Iraq, these efforts of Shi'i ulama to lead the community were usually confined to Shi'i society, to the extent that their personal influence and charismatic powers are effective.