While discourses on conjoined twins and tragic mulattoes
have both suggested these groups are fusion monsters on physical, psychological, and ontological grounds, the monster in The Thing with Two Heads combines both of these kinds of fusion monsters.
While Toussaint's reaction to the black rebellion on the island was severe repression, his reaction to the rebellion of disgruntled whites and mulattoes
who were politicking in Paris was more tactful and deliberate.
Each of the European powers allied itself with the leadership of one of the three major population strata of the colony, the Spanish with the blacks, the English with the whites, and the French with the mulattoes
Those who started their businesses immediately after the war--largely mulattoes
emancipated in the antebellum period--were much more likely to survive in business for a long period of time than those who began in the 1870s, who were increasingly likely to be black.
While the stories do not pack the rage and defiance that would later come with the books of the Harlem Renaissance, Chesnutt saw the need for blacks to accommodate and compromise with the prevailing color codes of the white society, presenting an option of mulattoes
and mixed races as the cure for white bigotry.
Their ideological, not necessarily practical, readiness to take actions for the freedom of slave members could appeal not only to the slave population but also to whites and mulattoes
who wanted to be good Christians by lending a hand to the needy.
In Campanha where 84% of the freedmen in non-slave households were pardos, such mulattoes
headed only 81% of such establishments.
were often perceived by themselves and by others as biologically neither white nor black.
This has made scholarly research on North American mulattoes
as difficult, and as scant, as research on Afro-Latin Americans--but it has not caused either group to disappear.
Census-takers were instructed to mark the color of "Free Colored Persons," and Mulattoes
were not limited to persons of white and black biological parents, as Susan Graham demands.
This pioneer study, that focuses particularly on the women, documents the evolution of a community of people in middle Georgia who did not fit neatly into one of the racial groups, including the whites, the mulattoes
, or the African Americans.
Virginia's law, for example, stated that "any negro or mulatto, bond or free, shall be a good witness in pleas of the commonwealth for or against negroes or mulattoes
, bond or free, or in civil pleas where free negroes or mulattoes
shall alone be parties, and in no other cases whatsoever.