If a thyroid operation was necessary or the disease was multiglandular
, a total thyroidectomy with a more extensive neck exploration was performed rather than MIP.
Given that the radiographic findings of IgG4-RS are nonspecific, differentiation of multiglandular
and localized involvement from malignant lymphoma for multiglandular
disease and salivary gland carcinoma for localized disease is challenging.
Furthermore, cystic adenomas were not associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1), multiglandular
disease, or ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.
Together, they are responsible for the remaining 5% of saliva secreted in humans.,,, It is considered that humans secrete approximately 0.5 L of saliva per day in response to stimulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic sections of the autonomic nervous system.,, Whole saliva is a multiglandular
secretion complex consisting of gingival fluid, desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and products of their metabolism, food debris, leukocytes, and mucus from the nasal cavity and the larynx and pharynx.
Galectin-3 and Ki-67 expression in multiglandular
Incidence of multiglandular
disease in primary hyperparathyroidism determined by parathyroid hormone secretion.
Seventy-nine patients had a solitary parathyroid adenoma, one had parathyroid carcinoma, 12 had double adenomas, and two had multiglandular
disease (one patient with three enlarged glands and one patient with four enlarged glands).
Pathologic examination of the surgical specimens showed multiglandular
cystic parathyroid adenomas without evidence of parathyroid carcinoma (figure 2).
Hashimoto disease commonly links with autoimmunological diseases, such as: rheumatoid arthritis; Sjogren syndrome; psoriasis; celiakia; and multiglandular
It is also important to remember the less common multiglandular
involvement with PHPT.
(8) Minimally invasive surgery is currently the standard of care in patients with conclusive localisation studies (all indicating only one suspect gland at the same location) and no suspicion of multiglandular