trauma

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trauma

1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound

Trauma

 

an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.

REFERENCES

See references under and .

V. F. POZHARISKII

trauma

[′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
(psychology)
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
Severe damage to large venous vessels from multiple trauma or accidental complications from surgery can cause massive bleeding resulting in death.
Age distribution according to reason for admission indicated that multiple trauma patients were significantly younger (37.
For any patient suffering from multiple trauma, the issue of pregnancy isn't one we consider," he added.
A post-mortem showed that both men would have died instantly, Mr Smith from multiple trauma and Mr Marney from haemorragic shock.
Low total and actin-free Gc-globulin concentrations, the latter being an index of residual actin-scavenging capacity, have been demonstrated to be prognostic markers in situations of severe organ damage, such as fulminant hepatic failure (13,14), acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose (15), multiple trauma (16), and multiple organ failure (8,17).
Emergency room physicians, trauma surgeons, anesthesiologists, and especially otolaryngologists should maintain a high level of awareness of and suspicion for laryngotracheal trauma whenever a patient presents with multiple trauma in general or with cervical trauma in particular.
Post mortems blamed multiple trauma for the birds' deaths, caused by a heavy blow.
Chakraborty is completing a study of genomic factors contributing to sepsis in patients with multiple trauma or pneumonia.
In their comments, the investigators question whether the access of some Americans to multiple trauma centers may be excessive, and whether "appropriate limits" on the number of centers could increase patient volumes and thus improve the quality of care--questions that both Dr.
Kramer was in critical condition late Tuesday at Sacred Heart Medical Center and died of multiple trauma.
Bone LB, McNamara K, Shine B, et al: Mortality in multiple trauma patients with fractures.
The percentage of isolated TBI versus TBI with multiple trauma was similar in both HC and CP groups.

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