The proliferation of professional schools, the expansion of graduate education, and the increasing emphasis on research moved multiversities further away from the ideals of liberal education toward utilitarian market concerns.
As an unwritten agreement between multiversities and the government (and the public), this contract stipulates multiversities' contribution to the social and economic development of the country.
Today's multiversities, Fallis maintains, operate "in the pincers," struggling to meet the growing demand for higher education in the conditions of decreasing state funding.
It increases international competition and solidifies existing hierarchies, leaving the wealthiest multiversities at the top and stifling less prosperous institutions.
There are 76 universities in Canada, 12 of which can be called "multiversities": large institutions with an average of 22,000 students and substantial commitment to research, large graduate programs, and professional training.
In Multiversities, Ideas, and Democracy George Fallis argues for the importance to a cosmopolitan democratic life of cultural ideas and the university.
Multiversities are, according to Kerr, large autonomous conglomerates which produce scientific and intellectual knowledge.
If one leaves aside the fact that this logic actually applies to all universities and not just the large research-oriented "multiversities" of which the book title speaks, it remains true that this is an argument to warm the heart of all humanities graduates.
Instead, carried away by the writing of Henry Giroux, he extols universities (no differentiation here between "multiversities" and other institutions) as places where thought can be free, democratic and able to challenge the West's plutocratic elites.
For all his claims about the importance of liberal arts to democracy, Fallis's calls for reform amount to recommending the establishment at all multiversities (apparently ordinary universities are irrelevant here, for reasons that are not entirely clear) of a sensibly designed liberal arts elective minor, which would include a course on the history of universities.
Kerr contended that the fragmenting of multiversities has meant that "the role of administration becomes more central in integrating it;" but the power of the president and deans has been diminished by the variety and "lawlessness" of the many-faceted modern university.
He is able to view the rising federal grant multiversities both as "pathological" and rudely neglectful of the educational needs of eager young minds and as a brilliant and critically vital new addition to America's s intellectual landscape.