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the ability of many insect groups to produce from one to several generations a year. Species producing one generation a year are called univoltine species; those producing two generations are bivoltine; and those producing several generations, polyvoltine. Some univoltine species are, for example, flea beetles, most of the Acridoidea, and cereal shield bugs. The codling moth and large white cabbage butterfly are univoltine in the north and polyvoltine in the south of Russia.

The ability of the Chinese silkworm to produce from one to seven or eight generations (harvests of cocoons) a year is one of the characteristics by which silkworm varieties are distinguished. The butterflies of bivoltine varieties are smaller than those of univoltine varieties, and the quality of the cocoons spun by the caterpillars is lower, but the bivoltine varieties are quick to mature and are hardy. Crossbreeding bivoltine varieties with univoltine varieties which yield higher quality silk results in new silkworm breeds distinguished by high viability, large cocoons, high silk yield, and good technological qualities of their silk.


Mikhailov, E. N., and P. A. Kovalev. Selektsiia i plemennoe delo v shelkovodstve. Moscow, 1956.
Uchebnaia kniga shelkovoda. Moscow, 1966.
Bei-Bienko, G. Ia. Obshchaia entomologiia. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly haemolymph protein profiles in different multivoltine and bivoltine races of silkworm have been demonstrated by Somasundaram, et al.
A multivoltine life cycle is assumed for this common phyline.
A modification of the Hynes method for estimating secondary production with particular significance for multivoltine populations.
Thus, it would appear that mild temperatures permitted winter dispersal and reproductive activity, raising the possibility that this species may be bivoltine or multivoltine in central and southern Georgia.
Thus, in the lower Piedmont of Georgia, Hoperius planatus employs either a bivoltine or multivoltine life cycle strategy.
Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is an invasive, multivoltine pest of citrus that became established in Florida in 1993 (Heppner & Fasulo 2010).
This species is multivoltine in southern Florida and exhibits the wing dimorphism of both brachypterous and macropterous wing-forms.
Cactoblastis cactorum is a multivoltine pyralid moth that specializes on prickly pear cacti (subfamily Opuntioideae) and has been widely used as a biological control agent for invasive prickly pear cacti in countries such as Australia (Dodd 1940) and South Africa (Pettey 1948).
in Jan, Apr and Jun); therefore, it is suspected that the insect has adopted a multivoltine life-cycle in TCI as the insects do not need to overwinter because of the marine tropical climate with relatively constant temperatures throughout the year.
Geographical variation in photoperiodic response for diapause induction between univoltine and multivoltine populations of Kytorhinus sharpianus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).