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the ability of many insect groups to produce from one to several generations a year. Species producing one generation a year are called univoltine species; those producing two generations are bivoltine; and those producing several generations, polyvoltine. Some univoltine species are, for example, flea beetles, most of the Acridoidea, and cereal shield bugs. The codling moth and large white cabbage butterfly are univoltine in the north and polyvoltine in the south of Russia.

The ability of the Chinese silkworm to produce from one to seven or eight generations (harvests of cocoons) a year is one of the characteristics by which silkworm varieties are distinguished. The butterflies of bivoltine varieties are smaller than those of univoltine varieties, and the quality of the cocoons spun by the caterpillars is lower, but the bivoltine varieties are quick to mature and are hardy. Crossbreeding bivoltine varieties with univoltine varieties which yield higher quality silk results in new silkworm breeds distinguished by high viability, large cocoons, high silk yield, and good technological qualities of their silk.


Mikhailov, E. N., and P. A. Kovalev. Selektsiia i plemennoe delo v shelkovodstve. Moscow, 1956.
Uchebnaia kniga shelkovoda. Moscow, 1966.
Bei-Bienko, G. Ia. Obshchaia entomologiia. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly haemolymph protein profiles in different multivoltine and bivoltine races of silkworm have been demonstrated by Somasundaram, et al.
carolinus was found in Georgia much earlier in the year than species of Dytiscus in either Alberta or Wisconsin, it is possible that it is either bivoltine or multivoltine in Georgia.
A modification of the Hynes method for estimating secondary production with particular significance for multivoltine populations Limnology and Oceanography 24:169-174.
These values correspond to the net reproduction rate of R [approximately equal to] 55 and 7, and may represent reasonable values for multivoltine insects and small mammals.
A larger size is a distinct advantage for female Atala, as they are multivoltine, displaying consecutive and overlapping generations.
armigera is devastating pest notorious for its diversified preference of hosts, feeding on foliage and fruiting structures, concealed feeding habit, great mobility, adaptable and multivoltine nature (Kambrekar et al.
is a polyphagous multivoltine highly motile fecundative and possesses short life cycle (Khan et al.
It is common among multivoltine species that the first Spring emergences are stronger, in terms of growth and development, than later emergences which coincide with rising temperatures and increasing photoperiod in Spring (Tokeshi, 1995).
A multivoltine life cycle is assumed for this common phyline.
A final pattern of stochastic environmental variation is where the whole population is reduced in numbers by occasional environmental catastrophes, or by the onset of winter for multivoltine organisms in seasonal environments.
Thus, it would appear that mild temperatures permitted winter dispersal and reproductive activity, raising the possibility that this species may be bivoltine or multivoltine in central and southern Georgia.