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mumps(epidemic parotitis), acute contagious viral disease, manifesting itself chiefly in pain and swelling of the salivary glands, especially those at the angle of the jaw. Other symptoms are fever, a general feeling of illness, and pain on chewing or swallowing. Mumps most often affects children between the ages of 5 and 15, the incubation period being 14 to 21 days; the acute phase rarely lasts more than 3 days. The disease is usually more severe in adults, the most common complications being pain and swelling of the testes (in 20% of adult male patients) and swelling of the meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord (in about 30% of cases). Sterility resulting from involvement of the testes and fatalities from the meningoencephalitis occur in a small minority of male cases. Other possible complications include pancreatitis and involvement of the heart or thyroid. The ovaries are sometimes affected in females. Treatment consists mainly of bed rest, intake of fluids, and the administration of analgesics. A live virus vaccine has been developed that can be given to susceptible children at 15 months.
An acute contagious viral disease, characterized chiefly by enlargement of the parotid glands (parotitis).
Besides fever, the chief signs and symptoms are the direct mechanical effect of swelling on glands or organs where the virus localizes. One or both parotids may swell rapidly, producing severe pain when the mouth is opened. In orchitis, the testicle is inflamed but is enclosed by an inelastic membrane and cannot swell; pressure necrosis produces atrophy, and if both testicles are affected, sterility may result. The ovary may enlarge, without sequelae.
An attenuated live virus vaccine can induce immunity without parotitis. It is recommended particularly for adults exposed to infected children, for students in boarding schools and colleges, and for military troops.
(also epidemic parotitis), an acute infectious disease caused by a filterable virus that affects the salivary glands, predominantly the parotid glands. Children five to 15 years of age are most susceptible. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets released when a sick person who has been infected for up to nine days coughs, sneezes, or talks. A stable immunity remains after the infection, and the incubation period averages 18 days.
The symptoms of mumps are elevated temperature and swelling and soreness of the salivary glands upon palpation. The parotid glands are usually affected, but the submaxillary and hypoglossal glands are also susceptible. Sometimes the inflammatory process affects other glandular organs. For example, pancreatitis results when the pancreas is infected; orchitis is the resultant infection in the testes of adolescent boys and young men; and oophoritis is the resultant infection in the ovaries of adolescent girls and young women. Symptoms of inflammation in affected organs persist for five to ten days, and suppuration does not occur.
Mumps is often accompanied by a benign form of acute serous meningitis. Rare and dangerous complications are acute encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and impairment of the inner ear resulting in permanent deafness. However, the prognosis for mumps is usually favorable.
Treatment involves bed rest, application of heat to affected organs, and symptomatic remedies. Should complications arise, the appropriate measures are taken. The patient is isolated until the ninth day of infection, and children who have been in contact with an infected individual are not allowed to attend nurseries, kindergartens, or schools for 21 days after exposure.
S. D. NOSOV
A programming language with extensive tools for the support of database management systems. MUMPS was originally used for medical records and is now widely used where multiple users access the same databases simultaneously, e.g. banks, stock exchanges, travel agencies, hospitals.
Early MUMPS implementations for PDP-11 and IBM PC were complete operating systems, as well as programming languages, but current-day implementations usually run under a normal host operating system.
A MUMPS program hardly ever explicitly performs low-level operations such as opening a file - there are programming constructs in the language that will do so implicitly, and most MUMPS programmers are not even aware of the operating system activity that MUMPS performs.
Syntactically MUMPS has only one data-type: strings. Semantically, the language has many data-types: text strings, binary strings, floating point values, integer values, Boolean values. Interpretation of strings is done inside functions, or implicitly while applying mathematical operators. Since many operations involve only moving data from one location to another, it is faster to just move uninterpreted strings. Of course, when a value is used multiple times in the context of arithmetical operations, optimised implementations will typically save the numerical value of the string.
MUMPS was designed for portability. Currently, it is possible to share the same MUMPS database between radically different architectures, because all values are stored as text strings. The worst an implementation may have to do is swap pairs of bytes. Such multi-CPU databases are actually in use, some offices share databases between VAX, DEC Alpha, SUN, IBM PC and HP workstations.
Versions of MUMPS are available on practically all hardware, from the smallest (IBM PC, Apple Macintosh, Acorn Archimedes), to the largest mainframe. MSM (Micronetics Standard MUMPS) runs on IBM PC RT and R6000; DSM (Digital Standard Mumps) on the PDP-11, VAX, DEC Alpha, and Windows-NT; Datatree MUMPS from InterSystems runs on IBM PC; and MGlobal MUMPS on the Macintosh. Multi-platform versions include M/SQL, available from InterSystems, PFCS <email@example.com> and MSM.
Greystone Technologies' GT/M runs on VAX and DEC Alpha. This is a compiler whereas the others are interpreters. GT/SQL is their SQL pre-processor.
ISO standard 11756 (1991). ANSI standard: "MUMPS Language Standard", X11.1 (1977, 1984, 1990, 1995?).
The MUMPS User's Group was the M Technology Association.
Usenet newsgroups: news:comp.lang.mumps.