However, across sites, the highest cover of these species generally varied with the degree of tidal muting (Fig.
There were also differences in the lower limits of distribution of transitional and upland species among sites having different degrees of tidal muting. For example, the lower limit of the invasive grass, Parapholis incurva, occurred on average ~0.54 m lower at the sites of greatest tidal muting (CM, TE1, and TE2) (Fig.
Relationship between the Lower Limit of Vegetation, Tidal Muting, and Marsh Slope
Tidal muting explained a significant amount of variation in the lower limits of Parapholis incurva and the transition/upland group, but not in Arthrocnemum subterminale (Table 1).
The specific reasons for the differences in tidal muting among sites are not known, but channel morphology may be a contributing factor (e.g., Van der Molen 1997).
The muting of instruments in this manner can be seen as an expression of the aesthetic idea that their tone qualities could represent emotions.
According to the instructions in Spontini's Fernand Cortez (1809), leather bags were to be tied over the bells of the oboes and clarinets to mute them.(45) The latter may have been a particularly French method of muting wind instruments: Hector Berlioz specifies that the clarinet is to be wrapped in a bag of cloth or leather to mute it in his Lelio, ou Le retour a la vie (1830-31).(46) Berlioz follows an old tradition in his use of a muted woodwind instrument in this work:
Robbins Landon:(50) while the trumpets are at the top of the score, as is usual for Haydn, the horn parts are written in the middle of the score between the clarinets and the oboes, far away from the trumpet parts and from the muting direction.
Given the date of Hauber's death, however, it seems more likely that Joseph Haydn thought independently of muting the entire orchestra.