myasthenia gravis


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myasthenia gravis

(mīəsthē`nēə grä`vĭs), chronic disorder of the muscles characterized by weakness and a tendency to tire easily. It is caused by an autoimmune attack on the acetylcholine receptor of the post synaptic neuromuscular junction. The initiating event leading to antibody production is unknown. The disease is most common between the ages of 20 and 40 and more frequent in women. The muscles of the neck, throat, lips, tongue, face, and eyes are primarily involved. Exertion quickly brings on difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and talking. The eyelids may droop, and there are visual disorders. Myasthenia gravis is transmitted passively to fetuses from infected mothers, a syndrome call neonatal myasthenia. Congenital myasthenia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of neuromuscular transmission beginning in childhood, usually with ophthalmoplegia. Life-threatening myasthenic crisis, in which the diaphragm is affected and the patient has respiratory failure, occurs in 10% of the patients. Treatment of the disease includes the use of cholinesterase inhibitors, thymectomy, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive agents and plasmapheresis (see apheresisapheresis
, or hemapheresis
, any procedure in which blood is drawn from a donor or patient and a component (platelets, plasma, or white blood cells) is separated out, the remaining blood components being returned to the body.
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). Prolonged rest is likely to restore some of the muscle function; restricted activity at all times and complete rest during periods of aggravation of the illness are necessary.

myasthenia gravis

[‚mī·əs·thēn·ē·ə ′grav·əs]
(medicine)
A muscle disorder of unknown etiology characterized by varying degrees of weakness and excessive fatigability of voluntary muscle.
References in periodicals archive ?
The incidence of myasthenia gravis: a systematic literature review.
The effect of myasthenia gravis as a prognostic factor in thymoma treatment.
Myasthenia gravis: a changing pattern of incidence [Electronic version].
Worsening of myasthenia gravis after administration of injectable long-acting risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia; first case report and a call for caution.
The severity of myasthenia gravis was assessed by Quantitative myasthenia gravis score and Osserman and Genkins classification and graded accordingly for prompt care and management.
Pseudointernuclear ophthalmoplegia as a presenting feature of ocular myasthenia gravis. BMJ Case Rep 2014;2014;bcr2013203234.
Samengo et al., "Flow cytofluorimetric analysis of anti-LRP4 (LDL receptor-related protein 4) autoantibodies in Italian patients with myasthenia gravis," PLoS One, vol.
Treatment of myasthenia gravis with reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like pyridostigmine may be associated with potential side effects such as bradyarrhythmias and in rare cases complete asystole and sinus arrest.
A 69-year-old Caucasian female with seropositive myasthenia gravis on monthly maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin (1gram/kg body weight) every 4 weeks and prednisone 50 mg PO daily and pyridostigmine 60 mg three times a day was transferred to the university hospital cardiology service with acute onset chest pain, palpitations, nausea, and profuse sweating on waking up in the morning at a long-term acute care (LTAC) facility.
Presence of antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is most common, with a positive result in 80% of adults with generalized Myasthenia Gravis [1].
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction of the skeletal muscle that is characterized by fluctuating pronounced ocular, limb muscle, or bulbar weakness [1].