Mycobacterium

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Mycobacterium

 

a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).

A. A. IMSHENETSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Numerical analysis of rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium obuense sp.
Systematic review of tattoo-associated skin infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria and public health investigation of a cluster in Scotland, 2010.
Species identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and cattle of Chad.
Multicenter evaluation of mycobacteria identification by PCR restriction enzyme analysis in laboratories from Latin America and the Caribbean.
Wallace, "Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria," Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.
TDM is also known as "cord factor" as it facilitates cord formation, as well as increasing impermeability and resistance to: (i) many antibiotics, thus improving survival inside macrophages.8,9 MTB can be differentiated from Non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) by the presence of cord factor because NTM is scattered or dispersed without any orientation.
Atypical mycobacteria (AM) are often isolated during laboratory studies of the diagnostic material.
Hence, they proved that glutaraldehyde might not be effective for rapidly growing mycobacteria. Other liquid sterilizing agents such as orthophthaldehyde (OPA; 0.55%) and peracetic acid may be substituted instead of glutaraldehyde for high-level disinfection with good efficacy.
Currently, the molecular biology techniques most commonly used for the diagnosis of diseases caused by mycobacteria are restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the diagnosis of M.
Wallace Jr., "Recent changes in taxonomy and disease manifestations of the rapidly growing mycobacteria," European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.
The current first-line drugs for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria are capreomycin, clarithromycin, and rifampin.