mycotoxin


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Mycotoxin

Any of the mold-produced substances that may be injurious to vertebrates upon ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. The diseases they cause, known as mycotoxicoses, need not involve the toxin-producing fungus. Diagnostic features characterizing mycotoxicoses are the following: the disease is not transmissible; drug and antibiotic treatments have little or no effect; in field outbreaks the disease is often seasonal; the outbreak is usually associated with a specific foodstuff; and examination of the suspected food or foodstuff reveals signs of fungal activity.

The earliest recognized mycotoxicoses were human diseases. Ergotism, or St. Anthony's fire, results from eating rye infected with Claviceps purpurea. Yellow rice disease, a complex of human toxicoses, is caused by several Penicillium islandicum mycotoxins. World attention was directed toward the mycotoxin problem with the discovery of the aflatoxins in England in 1961. The aflatoxins, a family of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can induce both acute and chronic toxicological effects in vertebrates. Aflatoxin B1, the most potent of the group, is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Major agricultural commodities that are often contaminated by aflatoxins include corn, peanuts, rice, cottonseed, and various tree nuts. See Aflatoxin, Ergot and ergotism

mycotoxin

[′mī·kə‚täk·sən]
(mycology)
A toxin produced by a fungus.
References in periodicals archive ?
OTA is a naturally occurring food borne mycotoxin found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities throughout the globe, ranging from cereal grains, dried fruits to wine and coffee.
Other mycotoxin testing uses ELISA technology, which relies on antibodies.
When exposure to mold is known or if health complaints have an untraceable source, mycotoxin testing may prove valuable in the diagnostic and treatment process.
Africa RISING and SPRING will help the Ghana team collect mycotoxin baseline data.
Ecological conditions affecting mycotoxin production in cereals: a review.
All the sheets were observed in wooden UV (ultra violet) lamp (365nm) for absence or presence of fluorescence as indicator of mycotoxin.
According to the company, mycotoxins derived from naturally-occurring fungi can be weaponized as highly toxic biological warfare agents.
The effect of insects' infestation on wheat flour quantity and quality loss, fungal contamination and presence of mycotoxins was studied after two months of storage (25+-2degC and 65%RH).
Participants from the regions with historical outbreaks had better maize handling practices, perhaps the result of past experience with mycotoxin contamination, leading to receiving more information.
Representative control and the contaminated diets were taken before and at the end of the starter and grower diet periods and analyzed for mycotoxin concentrations by the Asia Mycotoxin Analysis Center (Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan).
45], confirmed the positive correlation between the incidence of urinary tract tumors (UTT) and BEN demonstrated in our first population-based case control 1977 study and that the percentage of food samples and blood containing nephrotoxic mycotoxin and carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA) correlated with the origin of echantillonsr Nikolo (the group of BEN/UTT patients).