mycotoxin

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Related to Mycotoxins: mycotoxicosis

Mycotoxin

Any of the mold-produced substances that may be injurious to vertebrates upon ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. The diseases they cause, known as mycotoxicoses, need not involve the toxin-producing fungus. Diagnostic features characterizing mycotoxicoses are the following: the disease is not transmissible; drug and antibiotic treatments have little or no effect; in field outbreaks the disease is often seasonal; the outbreak is usually associated with a specific foodstuff; and examination of the suspected food or foodstuff reveals signs of fungal activity.

The earliest recognized mycotoxicoses were human diseases. Ergotism, or St. Anthony's fire, results from eating rye infected with Claviceps purpurea. Yellow rice disease, a complex of human toxicoses, is caused by several Penicillium islandicum mycotoxins. World attention was directed toward the mycotoxin problem with the discovery of the aflatoxins in England in 1961. The aflatoxins, a family of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can induce both acute and chronic toxicological effects in vertebrates. Aflatoxin B1, the most potent of the group, is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Major agricultural commodities that are often contaminated by aflatoxins include corn, peanuts, rice, cottonseed, and various tree nuts. See Aflatoxin, Ergot and ergotism

mycotoxin

[′mī·kə‚täk·sən]
(mycology)
A toxin produced by a fungus.
References in periodicals archive ?
'Since animal production is mostly dependent on animal reproduction which ensures the multiplication of animals and hence, the perpetuation of the species, the nutritional hazards that livestock are expose to through the an underestimation of the adverse mycotoxins influence on performance and reproductive efficiency of livestock.'.
In order to prevent the spread of mycotoxins in the first instance, Darra said, the authorities should ensure good agricultural and industrial practices, proper transportation and storage practices "throughout all stages of the food chain."
EU legislation on cereal safety: An update with a focus on mycotoxins. Food Control.
The eight mycotoxins in this experiment can be divided into Aspergillus and Fusarium toxins, with [AFB.sub.1] and OTA belonging to Aspergillus toxins, and Fusarium toxins consisting of the remaining six toxins.
Sampling was performed according to the Whitaker guideline for sampling food for mycotoxins analysis [27].
Different species of the same type of food differ in their susceptibility to fungi and the production of Mycotoxins (41,42).
Collection and culturing of fungal samples for mycotoxins production
Mycotoxins are produced by filamentous fungi, which are ubiquitous because of their ability to thrive in many different types of environments.
Presently, PSQCA has set standards only for aflatoxins (among mycotoxins) in certain commodities, but there are no any set standards for other mycotoxins particularly for ochratoxins.
"Mycotoxins are toxic molecules produced by mold and fungi that can have adverse impacts on humans at the cellular level," explains Dr.
PHLIL is actively engaged in detecting and identifying specific mycotoxins in post-harvest crops.
According to the company, mycotoxins derived from naturally-occurring fungi can be weaponized as highly toxic biological warfare agents.