Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase in the myenteric
plexus of the rat gut.
Interestingly, this involuntary component of deglutition is under autonomic control, and Lewy bodies have been identified in the oesophageal myenteric
plexus [66, 67].
In the lamina propria and myenteric
plexus, no difference in activation of p44/42 MAPK was observed between groups.
ICC of the myenteric
plexus (ICC-MY) occur around the circumference of the myenteric
plexus in the space between the circular and longitudinal muscularis.
IND is a distinct clinical entity that is genetically different from HD,5 which is characterized his tologically by a total increase in the number of gan glia and ganglion cells per ganglion in the myenteric
and submucosal plexuses in the colon.6 IND type A presents acutely in the neonatal period with episo des of intestinal obstruction, diarrhoea, and bloody stools; and in IND type B the clinical picture is in distinguishable from HD.7 When normal ganglion cells are present in the submucosal and intramuscular layers, their population is decreased; the disease is referred to as hypoganglionosis.8 Almost all cases reported in literature occurred relatively late in chil dhood9 and the common complaint of the patients with hypoganglionosis is intractable constipation.10
Other causes include Chagas disease, an infection by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that affects the myenteric
plexus, and amyloidosis.
They also recommend that patients suspected to have IND on suction rectal biopsies should have a full-thickness biopsy for detailed examination of the submucosal and myenteric
We report the unique case of a child with MD type 1 having CIPO associated with eosinophilic myenteric
plexitis and smooth muscle a-actin deficiency.
In the porcine stomach, it is formed by the myenteric
plexus (MP) located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, which mainly regulates the proper gastric motility, both after and between the meals, and the submucosal plexus (SmP) is situated in the inner side of the circular muscle layer, primarily regulating fluid secretion and resorption [9,10].
According to these authors, glucose would predominantly inhibit preganglionic excitatory neurons that make synapses with myenteric
cholinergic neurons (37), slowing GE.
The evidence for this is that mast cell mediators from patients with IBS caused the myenteric
motor neuron-mediated contraction of intestinal muscle in the guinea pig  and the strength of this effect was correlated with mast cell counts in the colonic mucosa.
Tumors with PNI frequently show a distinct pattern of intramural spread dotted along the Auerbach plexus zone (referred to as myenteric
spread; Figure 8, A and B), which can be readily identified at low power.