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Related to myopic: myopic degeneration, myopic shift


see nearsightednessnearsightedness
or myopia,
defect of vision in which far objects appear blurred but near objects are seen clearly. Because the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the eye's lens is too strong, the image is focused in front of the retina rather than upon it.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(nearsightedness), one of the errors of refraction of the eyes causing people suffering from it to see distant objects poorly. The word “nearsightedness” describes the way myopic people usually hold objects close to their eyes.

Myopia occurs when parallel rays coming from distant objects are not focused on the retina after they are refracted in the eyes, as happens in normal refraction, but are focused in front of the retina. As a result, the retina does not receive a clear image of the object, and myopic people see poorly at a distance. Only rays with a certain degree of divergence— that is, rays coming from objects close to the eye—can be focused on the retina.

The point from which rays after refraction are focused precisely on the retina is called the farthest point of clear vision. Its position determines the degree of nearsightedness: the closer the point is to the eye, the greater the degree of myopia, and vice versa. If the farthest point of clear vision lies 1 m in front of the eye, myopia will be 1.0 diopter; 50 cm, 2.0 diopters; 25 cm, 4 diopters.

The closest point from which rays can be brought to focus precisely on the retina at a maximum tension (accommodation) of the eye is called the nearest point of clear vision. The distance between the farthest and nearest points of clear vision determines the space within which the nearsighted eye can see clearly. Three degrees of myopia are distinguished: weak, up to 3.0 diopters; moderate, 3.0 to 6.0 diopters; and strong, or high, 6.0 diopters or more. Strong myopia is to be distinguished from severe progressive, or malignant, myopia wherein organic changes occur in the vascular tunic and retina (for example, hemorrhages, atrophic phenomena, or retinal detachment) and result in varying degrees of loss of vision.

Myopia is a function of the greater optical strength of the refracting media of the eyes (cornea, crystalline lens, and vitreous body) in relation to the length of the anteroposterior axis of the eye (so-called refraction myopia) and the greater length of the axis of the eye in relation to the strength of its refracting apparatus (so-called axial myopia). Generally, so-called combination myopia occurs; both factors that determine refraction are within the average values needed for normal refraction, but these elements are so combined that myopia results.

Since nearsighted people must hold objects close to the eyes, the eyes must be made to converge by increased activity of the internal rectus muscles. If these muscles are inadequate, strabismus may develop.

Myopia often develops in schoolchildren as a result of the long periods of time they spend doing close work (reading and writing), especially in insufficient light and under poor hygienic conditions. It may also develop among workers in various fields (engravers, watchmakers, and typesetters, for example). Nearsightedness is diagnosed in clinics with the aid of special instruments (refractometers) and methods (retinoscopy, or shadow test) or by the selection of suitable lenses.

Prevention of myopia entails providing proper illumination in classrooms and alternating periods of work and rest. Developing myopia can be checked by the prompt prescription of corrective glasses, with the individual’s age and job being taken into consideration. Accompanying diseases that weaken the body and promote the development of nearsightedness should be treated. Systematic treatment and a suitable regimen are needed in the case of progressive myopia. Persons with this disorder should be kept under clinical observation. Retinal detachment requires surgical treatment.


Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvopo glaznym bolezniam, vol. 1, book 1. Moscow, 1962. Pages 279–94.
Beletskaia, V. I., and N. V. Shubina. Gigiena zreniia. Moscow, 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A condition in which the focal image is formed in front of the retina of the eye. Also known as nearsightedness.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


myopiaclick for a larger image
The state of eyes in which there is short sight and the person is unable to see distant objects. This is the state when the eye is fully relaxed. Parallel rays of light are focused in front of the retina either because the eyeball axis is too long or the refractive power of the eye is too strong. The condition is treated with concave lenses, which should be worn at all times for distance vision.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


inability to see distant objects clearly because the images are focused in front of the retina; short-sightedness
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The main theory on how ortho-k reduces myopic progression is that it changes the peripheral refraction, sending a signal that slows the growth of the eye.
Next, 32 myopic eyes, collected as described above, were randomly divided into two groups (16 eyes) and put into the same solution (1% LOX + 1% GNP), wherein group J was crosslinked for 8 h, and group K was crosslinked for 12 h.
All my children are myopic and I am excited for them to try these dailies, as they have shifted from prescriptions to contact lenses in search of the best options out there.
Controls satisfied all of the following inclusion criteria: (1) visual acuity ≥20/20; (2) a spherical refraction within [+ or -]0.50 D and a cylinder correction within [+ or -]0.75 D; and (3) all inclusion criteria of the myopic patients.
This value is consistent with values documented in other studies.6,13 Mean average thickness of our myopic population was 97.53+-8.80um after correction for magnification effect (mean SE-3.59+-1.76DS).
To put this into context, a university graduate from the UK with 17 years of education would, on average, be at least 1 dioptre more myopic than someone who left school at 16 (with 12 years of education).
LAMA1 is reportedly located on the short arm of chromosome 18 and forms the ~1648 kb centromere of the ZFP161 gene in the MYP2 region.22 The gene encodes laminin, a structural glycoprotein component integral to the elastic system of the trabecular meshwork located in the scleral wall.23 In a recent study, LAMA1 mRNA level was found to be lower in high myopic scleral tissue compared to that of non-myopic scleral tissue.24
Myopic patients were divided into two groups: low myopic, with a spherical equivalent less negative than -5.00 D (39 eyes), and high myopic, with a spherical equivalent equal to or more negative than -5.00 D (14 eyes).
Results: There were 25 patients in high myopic group and 25 patients in control group.
Malacanang on Wednesday slammed as 'myopic and speculative' the remarks of US Intelligence Community tagging President Rodrigo Duterte as a threat to democracy and human rights.
(8,9) Moreover, varying degrees of refractive myopic shift after pediatric cataract surgery and IOL implantation have been reported, with a moderate amount of individual variability.