(2002)  (i) daughter minerals: halite, sylvite, nahcolite
, K-feldspar, Ba/Ca hydroxides, galena, cerussite, fluorapatite, cryolite, burbankite, pyrite, fluorite, barite Kalkfield Complex, Volatile rich (~40wt% [H.sub.2]O + Namibia; carbonatite; C[O.sub.2]) with Buhn and Rankin Na-Ca-REE-Sr components (1999)  Fen, Norway; Fluids all magmatic in origin.
Some oil shale yield sulfur, ammonia, alumina, soda ash, uranium, and nahcolite
as shale oil extraction by products.
Oil shale formation is known to contain several types of carbonate minerals such as dawsonite and nahcolite
. These host minerals in the oil shale matrix significantly complicate the pyrolysis process .
According to the XRD data base , the powder sample contains trona, dolomite, nahcolite
and natron phases.
Lowenstein and his colleague Robert Demicco at Binghamton University have discovered that nahcolite
, a rare, yellowish-green or brown carbonate mineral, only forms on earth under environmental conditions marked by very high atmospheric CO2 levels.
Some rocks derived from Colorado lake sediments of that era contain large amounts of nahcolite
, a natural form of baking soda.
The inclusions were found to variously contain a saline (NaCl) solution, a carbonic (C[O.sub.2]) phase, and a solid phase (nahcolite
, dawsonite or weloganite).
Using digital automation architecture, advanced control systems and new instrumentation, American Soda saved money on both installation and startup costs at the Piceance nahcolite
mine in northwestern Colorado.
This project actually dates back to 1964 when Nielsen's father, Irv Nielsen, discovered what he believed to be commercial deposits of nahcolite
in the Piceance Creek Basin, a raw form of sodium bicarbonate.
Similarly, the company recently expanded its line of baking soda mouthwash and toothpaste after its research and development team found it could obtain commercial quantities of food-grade nahcolite
, a naturally occurring form of baking soda, and decided to formulate its new products with the ingredient.
Pyrolysis of oil shale is highly affected by the minerals contained, such as dawsonite, dolomite, quartz, and nahcolite
Design capacity is IM-st/yr soda ash and 150K-st/yr [Na.sub.2][([HCO.sub.3]).sub.2], based on mining of 1.6M-st/yr nahcolite
. Production during 2001 is planned at about 75% capacity.