naphtha


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naphtha

(năp`thə, năf`–), term usually restricted to a class of colorless, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Obtained as one of the more volatile fractions in the fractional distillation of petroleumpetroleum,
oily, flammable liquid that occurs naturally in deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth; it is also called crude oil. It consists principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons, with traces of various nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds.
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 (when it is known as petroleum naphtha), in the fractional distillation of coal tar (coal-tar naphtha), and in a similar distillation of wood (wood naphtha), it is used widely as a solvent for various organic substances, such as fats and rubber, and in the making of varnish. Because of its dissolving property it is important as a cleaning fluid; it is also incorporated in certain laundry soaps. Coal-tar (aromatic) naphthas have greater solvent power than petroleum (aliphatic) naphthas. Originally the term naphtha designated a colorless flammable liquid obtained from the ground in Persia. Later it came to be applied to a number of other natural liquid substances having similar properties. Technically, gasoline and kerosene are considered naphthas.
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naphtha

[′naf·thə]
(materials)
Petroleum fraction with volatility between gasoline and kerosine; used as a gasoline ingredient, solvent for paints and rubber, and cleaning solvent.
Aromatic solvent from coal tar, either solvent naphtha or heavy naphtha.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

naphtha

A distillate of petroleum or coal; generally has low solvency and high volatility; used as a solvent in paints and varnishes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

naphtha

1. a distillation product from coal tar boiling in the approximate range 80--170?C and containing aromatic hydrocarbons
2. a distillation product from petroleum boiling in the approximate range 100--200?C and containing aliphatic hydrocarbons: used as a solvent and in petrol
3. an obsolete name for petroleum
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Renewable naphtha is a co-product of the production of RHD, and has applications in gasoline blendstocks and as a feedstock in renewable chemicals.
Iran also offered 5,000 tons of light naphtha and other petrochemical products to domestic and international buyers through its energy bourse last week.
"Qatar supplies Indian end-users with LNG, crude oil, condensate, LPG and other fuels; and we are proud to be able to strengthen our energy relations with India through HPL as an energy partner for the direct supply of naphtha feedstock."
Naphtha consumption will be reduced as a result of the new supply agreement.
These deals follow the recent announcement from ADNOC that it had signed a similar three-year agreement with Malaysia's Lotte Chemical Titan (LCT), one of the largest polyolefin producers in South East Asia, for the sale of up to 1 million tons per year of naphtha.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Adnoc) has announced that it has signed 2 new agreements with Idemitsu Kosan Co Ltd of Japan and SCG Chemicals of Thailand for a combined amount of up to 1.5 million tonnes of naphtha per year.
Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Adnoc) on Wednesday signed two new agreements, with Idemitsu Kosan Company of Japan and SCG Chemicals of Thailand, for the sale of up to 1.5 million tons of Naphtha per year as the company eyes market share in Asian countries.
The Reformer would enable Byco to reduce the production of heavy naphtha and would lead to higher GRMs in the future.
Two fuels were considered in this study: a straight-run AKI58 naphtha and a market representative ULSD.
Firstly, naphtha auto-ignition properties lie in an intermediate position within the range delimited by gasoline and Diesel fuel.
Meanwhile, Thai crackers will raise naphtha as a proportion of their feed in order to capitalise on lower naphtha costs as well as hedging against the impact of depleting gas resources.