naphtha


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naphtha

(năp`thə, năf`–), term usually restricted to a class of colorless, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Obtained as one of the more volatile fractions in the fractional distillation of petroleumpetroleum,
oily, flammable liquid that occurs naturally in deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth; it is also called crude oil. It consists principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons, with traces of various nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds.
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 (when it is known as petroleum naphtha), in the fractional distillation of coal tar (coal-tar naphtha), and in a similar distillation of wood (wood naphtha), it is used widely as a solvent for various organic substances, such as fats and rubber, and in the making of varnish. Because of its dissolving property it is important as a cleaning fluid; it is also incorporated in certain laundry soaps. Coal-tar (aromatic) naphthas have greater solvent power than petroleum (aliphatic) naphthas. Originally the term naphtha designated a colorless flammable liquid obtained from the ground in Persia. Later it came to be applied to a number of other natural liquid substances having similar properties. Technically, gasoline and kerosene are considered naphthas.

naphtha

[′naf·thə]
(materials)
Petroleum fraction with volatility between gasoline and kerosine; used as a gasoline ingredient, solvent for paints and rubber, and cleaning solvent.
Aromatic solvent from coal tar, either solvent naphtha or heavy naphtha.

naphtha

A distillate of petroleum or coal; generally has low solvency and high volatility; used as a solvent in paints and varnishes.

naphtha

1. a distillation product from coal tar boiling in the approximate range 80--170?C and containing aromatic hydrocarbons
2. a distillation product from petroleum boiling in the approximate range 100--200?C and containing aliphatic hydrocarbons: used as a solvent and in petrol
3. an obsolete name for petroleum
References in periodicals archive ?
The naphtha is converted to olefins and then further converted to polyolefin resins.
Adnoc produces over 12 million tonnes per annum of naphtha, which can be used as a feedstock to produce a variety of petrochemical-based products, including plastics.
Secondly, straight-run naphtha has less aromatic compounds, which may intrinsically lead to less soot formation.
The Qatari unit's start-up will increase Middle East naphtha exports to Asia, which is already fraught with a stubborn supply surplus and a lukewarm demand from gasoline producers.
Naphtha, a fuel transformed by oil and petrochemical companies into products ranging from plastic toys to high-performance gasoline, was once the ugly duckling of the refining world.
The first part of the development, Tacaamol, will use heavy naphtha feed for aromatics units and a lighter naphtha feed for a 1.
Browse Global Naphtha Market Report with Full TOC at http://www.
The naphtha cracker had been shelved indefinitely in 2010, as in the case of several other projects.
Its world-scale gas- to- liquid (GTL) conversion projects also produce globally marketable and environmentally friendly liquid products and synthetic fuels, including diesel, jet, naphtha and LPG.
Reza Haqiqi told the oil ministry's website that the NGL plant produces 140,000 cubic feet of gas and 15,000 barrels of naphtha and gas products a day.
Building a petroleum complex, including oil refineries, naphtha cracking plants and downstream factories of petroleum products, in China was one of the biggest investments proposed by the group's late chairman, Wang Yung-ching, many years ago, and valued at US$10 billion then.
The accident has prompted EGPC to delay two naphtha shipments to be lifted in May and June from Suez port, two officials from EGPC said.